Teaching Tasks

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These are all duties that an instructor should carry out during learning program. Some of the teaching tasks include planning, organizing and developing instructions. Others include managing student conduct, recordkeeping, and housekeeping (McKernan & McKernan, 2013).

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Frame factors

They are issues that may affect assessment or curriculum. In other words, frame factors refer to the elements which indirectly or directly influence the process of learning.

The proximal frame factors

These are the external items that affect curricula such as the internal demographic, the community, and regulatory obligations.

The distal frames

These are internal elements that affect curriculum. Examples include program goals, mission, and philosophies.

Chapter 9


This is a systematic investigation into a study of sources and materials to establish particular facts and reach new and helpful conclusions (Pinar, 2013). For example, a research that was taken to investigate the adaptability of HIV is unsuccessful.


It is a systematic utilization of technical and scientific knowledge o reach particular requirements or objectives. For example, the research done by the center of disease control has led to the development of HIV prevention drugs


It is the tendency of molecules to spread to occupy any available space. The atoms often move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration (Pinar, 2013). For, example, the rate of diffusion has increased due to increased temperatures


It is the process of acquiring a new product, substance or method. In education, it can be a method of acquiring certain teaching methods such as tuition.

Individually prescribed instruction

This is a systematic approach to learning that permit the learner mastery of instructional content at the individual learning rate. It also encourages learner evaluation of progress towards master (Pinar, 2013). Individually prescribed instructions offer one approach to individualization for the children.

Collaborative approach or learning

It is the educational approach to learning and teaching that involves one or several groups of learner working as one to solve a problem, create a product or complete a task. Collaborative is based on the idea that learning is naturally a social act in which the participants need to talk among themselves. For example, to get to the solution of a particular task, learners collaboratively approach it as a group.

The whole language

It is a method of teaching children to read words by recognizing such words as whole pieces of language describe a literacy philosophy that emphasizes that young learners should focus strategy and meaning of the instructions. The supporters of whole language philosophy assert that language should not be broken down into letters and combination of letters.

A standard test

This is a form of analysis that needs all people who takes the test to answer a similar question in the same manner. It is also scored in a consistent manner, which gives it possibility to compare the relative performance of a person. For example, when a similar examination is given to all learners, in the same manner, it is referred to as a standard test.

Chapter 10 and 11

Purpose of evaluation

This is a term that is used to determine the probability, plausibility, and adequacy of a study. Adequacy and plausibility are interested in whether the expected goals of an education are met or not while probability looks at the outcome of activity. An example is a concept map in teaching room to represent learners understanding of a particular topic.

Formative evaluation

This is a method of judging the value of an individual program when the activities of the program are still in progress. The goal of formative evaluation I to monitor the progress students and provide feedback that can be used by the teacher to improve teaching tactics and assist learners to develop.

Summative evaluation

This is a process of judging the value of a program at the end instructional unit. The goal of a summative evaluation judges the student learning at the end of the unit by doing a comparison with certain benchmark or standard. An example of summative evaluation is a final project of end unit exam (Posner, 2003).

Evaluation data

This is a set of data that are used as a comparison or standard unit for other ongoing research. In most cases it is theoretically given hence one does an experiment, the practical answer is expected to be the same as the theoretical data.

Side effects

These are the negative or harmful consequences that come as a result of a program. A serious learning process that takes more than 8 hours in a day may present certain side effects to learners. Such side effects may include dizziness, fatigue, and even headache.


In computer programming, it is a sequence of exchange of critical information that is known as the unit of the function of sustaining a request and warranting the integrity of the database. On the other hand, in business, transaction is the act of buying or selling something. It is a business deal where one pays for an item while another person receives the payment. For example, a specific transaction is a collection stock order phoned by the customer and put into a computer by a customer representative (Posner, 2003).

Integrated evaluation

This is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluation that is based on interpreting, combining, and communicating language from a dissimilar scientific field. For example, it is used to assess particular issues under holistic approach. It is achieved either in horizontal, vertical sense.

Measurement-based evaluation

It is a method by which teachers use to determine the progress of students in basic academic areas such as reading, math, and spelling. For example, a teacher will dictate certain words to evaluate whether a student has improved in spelling or not.


McKernan, J., & McKernan, J. (2013). Curriculum action research: A handbook of methods and resources for the reflective practitioner. Routledge.

Pinar, W. F. (Ed.). (2013). International handbook of curriculum research. Routledge.

Posner, G. (2003). Analyzing the Curriculum. New York: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages;.

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