Previous Exposure to Trauma and PTSD Effects of Subsequent Traum

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This research sought to find out whether people who were exposed to previous traumatic events were likely to experience PTSD upon witnessing another event. The study utilized a sample of 2181 adults in Detroit with emphasis on sexual related trauma. The authors noted that those who had experienced multiple previous traumatic events recorded stronger PTSD effects as compared to a single previous event. People who had witnessed multiple sexual assaults in their childhood were more likely to develop PTSD from traumatic events in adulthood.

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However, the results indicated that sex differences do not account for the higher risk of PTSD among women. This study noted that the process of enduring the risk of anxiety disorder arising from childhood trauma brings about cognitive predisposition noted by helplessness. These experiences therefore create long term danger sensitivity in the individuals. The findings from this research were found to be in agreement with research on sensitization hypothesis that attributes vulnerability to PTSD in adults who had experienced childhood traumatic events.

Fry, M. (2016). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Practice Nurse, 46(2), 30-34.

Mandy Fry offers scenarios of PTSD patients who are not even aware that they suffer from the disorder. As a nurse, she notices the symptoms attributed to PTSD such as alcoholism, withdrawal from family and constant self-blame among her patients. She notes that many of the cases are diagnosed when its too late and offers an insight for early intervention measures. Psychological counseling coupled with pharmaceutical interventions has the capability of reducing the symptoms of PTSD.

Hirsch, Kenneth A. (2009). Sexual Dysfunction in Male Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Patients with Severe Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Military Medicine 174(5), 520-522.

Kenneth Hirsch brings to light the correlation between PTSD and sexual dysfunction by drawing data from Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans undergoing treatment in a PTSD facility. Although PTSD and sexual dysfunction have in the past been loosely linked to each other, the study noted of the weaknesses of the past studies that utilized broad data.

By setting up new parameters for sexual dysfunction with an additional of less desire to masturbate being a sign of decreased libido, the veterans were noted to experience flashbacks that made them loose interest in sex. In others, they were noted to be more violent during the sexual relations. The study concluded that the increased anger hostility was responsible for decreased intimacy among the veterans with PTSD.

Iribarren, J., Prolo, P., Neagos, N., & Chiappelli, F. (2005). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence-Based Research for the Third Millennium. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2(4), 503512.

This study brought about the efficacy of allostasis in the new research on improving PTSD treatment interventions. PTSD was found to have psychobiological correlates and thus utilizing evidence based research, the study attributes pharmaceutical therapy to be a more effective in reducing the symptoms of PTSD.

This study noted that stress causes anger, irritability, depressed moods as well as fatigue among other effects. The study also noted allostasis brings about stability by altering the state of stress. Stress inoculation training is also an effective behavioral therapy that utilizes the techniques of reducing anxiety. This study on the other hand argues for a combination of psychotherapeutic approaches and pharmacotherapy.

James, S. (2015). Women's experiences of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic childbirth: a review and critical appraisal. Archives Of Women's Mental Health, 18(6), 761-771. doi:10.1007/s00737-015-0560-x.

In this research, James focuses on nine cases on postnatal PTSD in order to identify the common symptoms. This study uses the cognitive model in processing the behavior of women who suffer from PTSD following a traumatic childbirth.

This study noted that women experience postnatal PTSD if they go through a traumatic childbirth. They end up being withdrawn from the child as well as the father of the child. Other symptoms are similar to cognitive behavior seen with other cases of traumatic events. This study however, does not offer ways of dealing with PTSD among women who suffers traumatic childbirth but offers recommendations for more qualitative studies that will provide evidence based treatment for this disorder.

Killeen, T. K., Back, S. E., & Brady, K. T. (2015). Implementation of integrated therapies for comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders in community substance abuse treatment programs. Drug & Alcohol Review, 34(3), 234-241. doi:10.1111/dar.12229.

This study attributes the rising cases of drug and substance abuse to the rising cases of PTSD. The study noted that among the patients who sought treatment for substance use disorders, the chances for PTSD ranged between 25%-50%. The authors argue that lack of early interventions has led to a majority of patients relapsing that increases their chances of developing other mental health problems. The findings from this research attributed success through the integration of therapy for substance use disorders and PTSD.

Piotrowski, N. P., & Range, L. P. (2016). Post-traumatic stress disorder. MagillS Medical Guide (Online Edition).

Piotrowski and Range define PTSD as a stress related disorder that occurs from indirect exposure to a serious injury, sexual violence, and threat of death that eventually affects individuals capability to work, interact as well as other areas of functioning. This journal attributes treatment and therapy to the effective interventions of PTSD experienced today. The authors argue that psychotherapy such as; anxiety management, cognitive behavioral therapy and stress debriefing are effective in treating PTSD. Administration of antidepressant drugs is also attributed to relieving the physiological symptoms. The authors also argue that technological advancement PTSD research has made therapy effective with the introduction of the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy.

Vitzhum, K., Mache, S., Joachim, R., Quarcoo, D., & Groneberg, D. (2009). Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 4(21).

This study reviews empirical data on PTSD by focusing on how the public health systems and the military facilities treat soldiers with PTSD upon returning home from deployment. Research on the treatment of PTSD has advanced immensely with a combination of therapy, medicine and virtual-reality simulators found to be effective. This study noted that different interventions measures are used depending on the severity of the trauma. Stigmatization was noted as a major barrier for seeking treatment. However, this study did not find systemic studies that brought to light the efficacy of combined psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment. This study on the other hand noted that early interventions for soldiers returning home were effective in reducing the severity of PTSD.

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