Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging

2021-05-17 23:01:09
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Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging is a concept that uses a light emission from medical isotopes such as 18F and 68Ga (Zhang et al. 2013). During this process, Cerenkov radiation (CR) is given out which are charged particles that travel through an electric medium at a faster speed than that of light in the same medium (Das, et al. 2014). Moreover, the process does not occur due to high temperatures. In detail, it occurs when molecules are triggered into a high-energy state, which afterward decay to the ground level. Moreover, since electronic energy is quantified level, the decay to the ground state is usually accompanied by an emission of a photon of a particular wavelength that creates an image (Mitchell et al. 2011). Indeed, it is grouped by the mode of energy to particular objects that produce a high-energy excited state.

Based on the sample experiments portrayed in the picture a dead rat was used to test how Cerenkov Luminescence is employed in Imaging and the reaction of the Luminescence in different media. As aforementioned, imaging is a tool that is used to measure the physical parameters such as concentration, tissue properties, and surface area of an object (Mitchell et al. 2011). Indeed, this allows both therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The dead rat was injected with Ga68 and 18F isotopes, which are chemical solutions that are used during the process of Luminescence imaging. The injection was done near the lung and other soft tissue located in different sections of the rats body.

The result indicates that the activities of the reflection have spread around the body. For examples, there is a reflection of the lung surface filled with air. Besides, the result shows that there was a different concentration of tissues, and this was vivid based on the level of luminescence around the mouse body. The areas around the abdomen and thorax the concentration of luminescence ranged between 40 and 60. Around the anal part, the concentration is about 100, but it decreases as the surface area spreads. More of the light is observed at the thoracic region that too declined towards the wider areas as seen in the third picture. According to Nedrow et al. (2014), the reflection of the imaged tissues, spread wide hence decreasing to areas with fewer tissues.

When a different medium was used to test the Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging, a different behavior of reflection produced is observed. From the first glass tube used, the concentration is high at a particular spot and decreases towards one end of the tube. For instance, the first glass tube the red spot is viewed towards one end. However, the second tube the concentration seems to spread uniformly across the medium. As such, the reflection spread from the periphery to the center (Park et al., 2011).

As indicated in the sample experiment, 25 uL, 177 uL, 68Ga, and 18F is placed in a petri dish, additional volume of water was added and re-imaged. Indeed, these are some of the isotopes that are used to investigate the sensitivity of the reaction (Tianming et al., 2015). During this process, the white paper glowed, and Luminescence intensity increased. Indeed, this happened because that chemical used excited high energy that leads to increasing protons and atoms interactions. Indeed, the increment in the volume of the chemical was a crucial factor that led to the increased sensitivity hence increased reaction that resulted in the glowing of the white paper (Yamamoto et.al. 2016).

In conclusion, the Cerenkov Luminescence is a modern technique that is used to create images about the tissue concentration. The areas showing high luminescence indicate regions that have numerous molecules and have many tissues. Based on the two different media it is a fact that light behaved differently in various media.

References

Das, S., Grimm, J., & Thorek, D. L. (2014). Chapter Six: Cerenkov Imaging. Advances in Cancer Research, 124(Emerging Applications of Molecular Imaging to Oncology), 213-234.

Mitchell, G. S., Gill, R. K., Boucher, D. L., Li, C., & Cherry, S. R. (2011). In vivo Cerenkov luminescence imaging: a new tool for molecular imaging. Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, (1955). 4605

Nedrow, J. R., White, A. G., Modi, J., Nguyen, K., Chang, A. J., & Anderson, C. J. (2014). Positron Emission Tomographic Imaging of Copper 64- and Gallium 68-Labeled Chelator Conjugates of the Somatostatin Agonist Tyr3-Octreotate. Molecular Imaging, 131-13

Park, J. C., Il An, G., Park, S., Oh, J., Kim, H. J., Su Ha, Y., & ... Yoo, J. (2011). Luminescence imaging using radionuclides: a potential application in molecular imaging. Nuclear Medicine and Biology, 38321-329.

Tianming, S., Xia, L., Yawei, Q., Haixiao, L., Chengpeng, B., Chengcai, L., & ... Jie, T. (2015). A Novel Endoscopic Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging System for Intraoperative Surgical Navigation. Molecular Imaging, 14443-451.

Yamamoto, S., Komori, M., Koyama, S., & Toshito, T. (2016). Luminescence imaging of water during alpha particle irradiation. Nuclear Inst. And Methods in Physics Research, A, 8196-13Zhang, X., Kuo, C., Moore, A. V., & Ran, C. (2013). In Vivo Optical Imaging of Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue with 18F-FDG via Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging.

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