Personality Traits Traced From Childhood to Adolescence

2021-05-05 01:06:55
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People respond to the same situations and circumstances differently. This is because; they have different personality traits that guide their thoughts and subsequent actions. Personality traits are inherent in every human being. As such, even identical twins exhibit behaviors that are not similar. This can only be explained by the differences in their characteristic thoughts, feelings and behaviors. The transition of children from childhood to adolescence involves a lot changes in the thoughts, behavior and how they response to any situations and circumstances coming their way. Even more, this change in behavior is more profound when the children suffer from brain disorders. Additionally, the criminal behaviors of their parent and other adults might lead to changes in personality in this transition stage. Moreover, the big five factors are also to blame for personality trait changes.

The Article of Van den Akker et al. (2013), states that Problematic personalities in children can at times lead to deviant behavior when they become adults. In this regard, he traces the adult behaviors to childhood and adolescence stages. Additionally, he attributes personality changes in adulthood to the big five factors of personality development. However, several authors have had different professional opinions on the psychological factors behind extreme personality traits. The following presents an annotated bibliography of articles that give different explanations behind extreme personality traits.

Yeates, K. O., Bigler, E. D., Dennis, M., Gerhardt, C. A., Rubin, K. H., Stancin, T., ... & Vannatta, K. (2007). Social outcomes in childhood brain disorder: a heuristic integration of social neuroscience and developmental psychology. Psychological bulletin, 133(3), 535.

The authors of this article conducted a research to establish the social outcomes that arise when a child is diagnosed with a brain disorder such as brain trauma. In this regard, they used a heuristic model which is a combination of the methods and practices if social cognitive neuroscience and the field of social competence in psychopathology. From this study, they established that brain complications affect a childs peer interaction, social problem solving, and cognition abilities. In their conclusion, the authors stated that these problems are noted even in future life of the child. This article concurs with the views of Van den Akker et al. that personality traits in adults can result from the effects of their childhood and adolescence. Indeed, personality traits can be because of any mental complication that happened to a child during this transition period from childhood to adolescences.

Thornberry, T. P., Henry, K. L., Ireland, T. O., & Smith, C. A. (2010). The causal impact of childhood-limited maltreatment and adolescent maltreatment on early adult adjustment. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(4), 359-365.

In this article, the authors conducted a research to establish whether any maltreatment during the childhood to adolescence stages could be responsible for any future crime, drug and substance abuse, internalizing problems, and wild sexual behaviors in adult. In so doing 904 participants, aged between 14 and 31 years, and who were taken from Rochester Youth Development Study were studied. In their findings, it was clear that maltreatment in childhood is responsible for violent crime, intake of alcohol, wild sexual behaviors, suicidal contemplations, among other extreme personalities. As such, they concluded that childhood maltreatment has a very strong and negative effect on later adjustment in adulthood. This study justifies the differences in personalities between people who have same friends and who share virtually everything. Moreover, the results of the study justify the differentiation in personalities between very similar characters, hence confirming the assertions of Van den Akker et al, 2013.

Branje, S. J., Van Lieshout, C. F., & Gerris, J. R. (2007). Big Five-personality development in adolescence and adulthood. European Journal of Personality, 21(1), 45-62.

The study conducted by Branje et al was on adolescent boys and girls as well as their mothers and fathers from over 280 Dutch families. The participants in this study were required to rate the personality traits of their family members using the accelerated longitudinal growth curve analyses. From their responses, boys were found to be less agreeable and open, while girls were found to be more open, conscious, agreeable and open. Similarly, the emotional stability of their mothers was found to increase while that of their fathers decreased. Self-differences and internal personality traits were found to be different despite the participants coming from the same family. This article explains the different ways that the big five factors affect personality traits and behaviors in people who are closely related which are the same that are mentioned by Van den Akker et al.

Eccles, J. (2009). Who am I and what am I going to do with my life? Personal and collective identities as motivators of action. Educational Psychologist, 44(2), 78-89.

In this article, Eccless infers that personality is a personal choice of the particular individual. In this regard, the author is of the view that personality traits are the result of individuals wanting to achieve success as well as the fulfillment of their personal expectations. Further, personal skills, characteristics and competencies are brought out as the major causes of personality differences between people. This article contradicts the views of Van den Akker et al that personality differences can be traced from the childhood to adolescence level of the journey to adulthood. Further, the article puts the blame for extreme personality changes squarely on the shoulders of the individual. This is definitely a diversion from the assertions of this research.

Bullingham, L., & Vasconcelos, A. C. (2013). The presentation of self in the online world: Goffman and the study of online identities. Journal of Information Science, 39(1), 101-112.

An analysis was conducted on 10 different scenarios of bloggers and second life participants on their social interactions and online postings. Specifically, the aspects of the participants observed were their expressions, their personal adoption hiding their identity and pseudonimity. The results of this study were that individuals like to hide their true characters and identities when they are in front of other people. The authors of this article use the framework that was developed by Goffman on the change of persona by individuals online to appease others. This study is in conflict with the article of Van den Akker et al. (2013). This is due to their view that personalities are self-instilled and not in any way inherent as observed by Van den Akker et al.

References

Branje, S. J., Van Lieshout, C. F., & Gerris, J. R. (2007). Big Five-personality development in adolescence and adulthood. European Journal of Personality, 21(1), 45-62.

Bullingham, L., & Vasconcelos, A. C. (2013). The presentation of self in the online world: Goffman and the study of online identities. Journal of Information Science, 39(1), 101-112.

Eccles, J. (2009). Who am I and what am I going to do with my life? Personal and collective identities as motivators of action. Educational Psychologist, 44(2), 78-89.

Thornberry, T. P., Henry, K. L., Ireland, T. O., & Smith, C. A. (2010). The causal impact of childhood-limited maltreatment and adolescent maltreatment on early adult adjustment. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(4), 359-365.

Van den Akker, A. L., Prinzie, P., Dekovic, M., De Haan, A. D., Asscher, J. J., & Widiger, T. (2013). The development of personality extremity from childhood to adolescence: Relations to internalizing and externalizing problems. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 105(6), 1038-1048. doi:10.1037/a0034441

Yeates, K. O., Bigler, E. D., Dennis, M., Gerhardt, C. A., Rubin, K. H., Stancin, T., ... & Vannatta, K. (2007). Social outcomes in childhood brain disorder: a heuristic integration of social neuroscience and developmental psychology. Psychological bulletin, 133(3), 535.

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