The article provided sustainable cement production present and future that is based on a research on cement and concrete research. The article introduces cement and its use first then the clinker production. The article analyses the energy efficiency within clinker production, the alternative fuels used in production, the alternative raw materials used in cement production, cement grinding efficiency and the carbon capture and storage (Schneider, Romer, Tschudin, Bolio, 2011). The article also talks about cement products whereby, cements that contain several main constituents are discussed. Here the challenges that face the application of the cements with several constituents are as well discussed. The new clinker substitutes are also discussed here and cement standardization. The article furthermore discusses the new kinds of binders and material notions used in cement production. Finally, the article discusses the development of education and required knowledge on cement.
From the article it is realized that the use of cement in construction begun several years ago. The quality of cement in construction proves that it would be used for several years coming. However, cement has no substitute in construction. The energy requirement in the production of clinker was realized to have reduced compared to the past few decades. The energy requirement reduction is attributed to plant-specific factors and the moisture content of the raw materials. The prices of electricity is another likely challenge that clinker production is facing (Schneider, Romer, Tschudin, Bolio, 2011). The clinker company is also determine to recycle some of its energy. The clinker production hence resolved to alternative energy sources and raw materials. The alternative fuels used include used tires, sewage sludge, animal residues, lumpy materials, industrial waste streams, and other forms of energy some of which were derived from waste products. The improvements within the cement production company to accommodate the alternative energy sources and raw materials resulted into various changes within the cement processes.
Another problem faced by the company is the amount of carbon dioxide produced by the company. There are several attempts to control the production of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during the production process of cement. Several means to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide have been generated; nevertheless, there are means to control if not to find a way through which the gas would not find a way into the environment. The article also discusses the alternative raw materials used in clinker production. It is realized that the raw materials are all dependent on limestone as their primary source. The natural mixture of clay or clay itself can be used as an alternative raw material in clinker production.
Marl could also be used as an alternative raw material to clinker production. The alternative raw materials are mostly used corrective materials in clinker production. The materials could also be recycled. When preparing for recycling, the reinforcement and concrete are separated. The only challenge is the use of crushed concrete sand and the concrete itself. The chemical analysis of the crushed concrete indicates that it contains more silicon from the sand particles within its source (Schneider, Romer, Tschudin, Bolio, 2011). The other challenge the cement Company is facing is the failure of the cement industry to use more cement alternative raw materials that originate from byproducts from industries and other waste streams. The other part of the cement manufacturing process discussed in the article is the grinding efficiency of cement. The grinding process is necessary to all the steps involved in the cement production.
The grinding process determines the workability of the cement after its final production. The process of grinding has been realized to be the highest energy consumer within the process of cement grinding. The grinding efficiency realized within the cement factory was realized to be insufficient. For efficient production of cement, more attention needs to be paid to the efficiency in grinding. Carbon capture and storage is another issue discussed within the article. The cement industry is expected to produce carbon dioxide in the process of its manufacturing. Therefore, a company should control the gas properly to minimize its effects to the environment.
There are several techniques used in curbing the gas produced during the process to ensure that it is not harmful to the environment. The article furthermore discusses the cement products that are generated during cement production (Schneider, Romer, Tschudin, Bolio, 2011). The main intention of the process was to produce Portland cement but there are other products that have resulted from cement production. The products may include the fly ash that originates from coal power firms. There is also granulated slag, which originates from the production of iron. There are also some cement with several major constituents. Carbon dioxide is not the only constituent from cement production. There are also other constituents such as granulated blast furnace and the fly ash. The constituents are also useful in several ways for both the company and the environment. The cements with several constituents have certain challenges especially during their application.
The characteristics of strength development of these kinds of cement are reduced with time. The strength development of such cements is slower when compared to the strength of pure cement that has no constituents. There are various attempts towards curbing the slower strength development within the cement with several constituents; the attempts are aimed towards ensuring that the cement strengths are equal (Schneider, Romer, Tschudin, Bolio, 2011). The article also shows that there are new clinker substitutes whose potentials might have not been realized in time appropriate enough to utilize them. The qualities within the substitutes have been realized match those of the cement itself. The substitutes have adequate clay contents that qualify them as proper cement substitutes. The substitutes are derived from various substances and sources that are limestone related.
The standardization of cement and its constituents are also discussed in the article. People in most constructions realize the position of the cement in the current market to be insufficient owing to the fact that there is over reliability on cement across the world. The supply of the cement across the world is being rectified through various means that include setting up new cement plants across the world. The article also discusses new types of binders and material concepts. The future of cement will be based on the materials that are globally recognized and in sufficient amounts (Schneider, Romer, Tschudin, Bolio, 2011). Other significant elements that can generate cement can be used in future to generate more cement. Finally, the article discusses the development of education and knowledge about cement to the people and the environment. For the use of the cement to be sufficient and successful, the employees and people, using the cement must be properly equipped with adequate knowledge on cement use. The knowledge varies from the mixing process to the application process during construction.
Schneider M., Romer M., Tschudin M., Bolio H. (2011). Sustainable Cement Production-present and Future. Journal Homepage : http: //ees.elsevier.com/CEMCON/default.asp
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