Ways to Present Numerical Data

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The result you have to report to the owner is that you cannot reject H0; there is not sufficient evidence to conclude that the mean is greater than 42 oz.

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According to chapter five in our required text, random sampling is also called probability sampling.


According to chapter five in our required text, sampling techniques offer varying levels of general liability.


According to chapter five in our required text, A sample is the section of the population chosen for study.


According to chapter five in our required text, sampling error is the difference of the results between a sample and that of the whole population.


There are a lot of ways in which one can present numerical data. One can present data in the form of tables, charts, graphs or descriptive statistics.

Tables are commonly used to present data in different publications. They are the format in which most numerical data get stored and are more likely to be the way one would use to organise collection of data during dissertation research or sampling. One has to make a decision whether to use tables, graphs or charts based on data sampled.

Tables are useful for data presentation especially when the dataset involves relatively few digits. When the definite value is crucial to an argument and a chart or graph would not deliver the exact precision level. When one doesnt want the presence of one or two very low or very high numbers to detract from the information in the of the dataset.

There are factors to consider before presenting data in tables. Tables consist of rows and columns, and it is, therefore, important to accurately consider how information will be placed between the two. They are presented with a well-detailed title that would give enough information to the reader. Numbers in tables are presented in a simple format and this may require rounding up values to avoid the use of decimal places.

On the other hand, graphs are a better means of exploring, describing and summarising data since the use of a visual image simplifies detailed information and help in the highlighting of trends and patterns. They are also effective in presenting a large amount of data.

Bar charts are one of the most commonly used types of charts. They are used to compare and display the frequency, number or mean for different categories and groups. One draws a graph in a way that the heights and lengths of the bars are directly proportional to the size of the data they represent. Since the horizontal axis represents the different categories it has no scale. The vertical axis does have a scale either. Thus, this indicates the units of measurement.

Histograms are a special type of bar chart where the data represents continuous categories rather than discrete ones. Pie charts are visual maps that display how the total data are distributed among different groups. Line graphs are used to display data based on time series. Scatter plots are charts that are used to show the relationship between pairs of quantitative measurements made by the same individual or object.

Like tables, one has to consider components of a graph. One is the Chart area. This area defines the boundary of all elements related to the chart. This area consists of the plot, the headings and an explanatory text. The plot area is the region containing the data. It is bounded by the vertical and horizontal axes to the bottom and left aside. The x-axis is the horizontal line that describes the base of the plot area. The y-axis is the vertical line that defines the left side of the plot area. Gridlines are the horizontal and vertical lines located within the plot area to aid in reading of values from the graph. The gridlines should not detract from the data.

All graphs should have a title that summarises what the graph entails. It should identify what is being described and the units of measurements. The title is placed within, above or below the chart area. The graph must have a reference to the source of its information. However, if the graph has data that you have collected yourself, then there is no need to provide details of the information source. For this problem, I would use tables to present the data. The data presented contains only ten digits.


Bader, B., & Gallagher-Cole, M. (2003). Graphs. New York: Grosset & Dunlap

Pistoia, S. (2003). Graphs. Chanhassen, MN: Child's World

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