The Twelfth Century Renaissance: Research Paper

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University of California, Santa Barbara
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In general, the term Renaissance refers to the age in the history of Europe, between the 14th to the 17th century, referred as a cultural connection between modern history and the Middle Ages. At the time of the medieval period in Italy, the Renaissance gradually as a cultural movement, before it spread to the entire European region, hence symbolizing the start of the modern age. Particularly, the 12th Century renaissance referred to the period that is characterized by various transformations at the beginning of the high Middle Ages. It is comprised of the political social and economic transformation together with the intellectual revitalization of Western Europe having robust scientific and philosophical roots. The changes created a way for future achievements like the artistic and literary movement of the 12th century and 11th century Italian Renaissance of scientific development. The 12th-century renaissance is centered on the spread of monasticism and the allied increase in literacy (Swanson 18). However, the renaissance viewed revolution in various intellectual quests, together with the political and social upheaval it is possibly clearly identified for the artistic contribution as well as the development of polymaths as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, who both led to the phrase Renaissance man.

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The Commercial Revolution and Examples of Economic Growth And/or Change

The commercial revolution is known to be a period that characterized European economic colonialism, mercantilism, and expansion, which covered between the 11th to the mid-18th century when it was taken over by the industrial revolution (Lopez 950). Some of the economic growths witnessed in the trade during that period include the promotion of the exploration voyages that were undertaken by Spain, England together with other Asian and African countries together with the New World. Other developments that were witnessed during that period are such as the establishment of the chartered companies, surge overseas trades, recognition of the principles of mercantilism, development of a money economy, the creation of new establishments like the bourse and bank as well as the economic specialization (Lopez 1050).

Renaissance humanism and how Renaissance became a break with the Middle Ages, with the inclusion of medieval civilization?

Renaissance humanism refers to the study of classical antiquity in the beginning in Italy before disseminating all through Western Europe between the 14th to 16th centuries. While Renaissance humanism is denoted as modern to the period humanist and Renaissance (King 118). Renaissance humanism is a reaction to the practical tactic that later was described as the "narrow pedantry" related to medieval scholasticism. Prior to Renaissance, Europeans focused on the city-state alongside the knowledge they acquired before not perturbing what new knowledge was available out there, later on, Renaissance was introduced people focused on learning. The renaissance was a division from the Middle Ages since it introduced new ideas as well as new ways of viewing society, but without the Middle Ages, there would be no need for the Renaissance (King 219). There was an equal way of thinking in the Middle Ages and individuals did not question in any instance.

Compare and Contrast Northern Renaissance and Italian Renaissance Art

The Northern and Italian is basically viewed as one of the most fascinating and significant ages in European history. A similar aspect between the Northern Renaissance and the Italian Renaissance is that both of them are derivative from nature through the emotional strength of the religious scenes (Cambridge 37-38). The Northern and Italian Renaissance differ in the following ways.

Italian Renaissance

Northern Renaissance

It occurred in Italy

It took place outside Italy but within Europe

It was non-religious(secular)

The Renaissance was much religious

It had humanism — the anatomy, attention to the details

The renaissance concentrated on details and color, though it had no humanism

The paints were on wet plaster

There was the oil painting on the wood.

It focused on Rome and Greece (pillars, domes, arches)

The Renaissance had no direct connection to either Greece or Rome

Venus of Dolni Vestonice: Sculpture Analysis

The 'Venus of Willendorf' refers to the female figure that was discovered at the Aurignacian loess deposit which is adjacent to the town of Willendorf in Austria, presently Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna. The archeologist who discovered it was Joseph Szombathy. The statue is characterized by the carving derived from oolitic limestone and it had red ochre. The 'Venus of Willendorf' is dated in the 30,000 and 25,000 BC, and its dimension is 110 mm in height.

The statue has been considered a significant icon during the prehistoric period and it is suggested that it was made by the nomadic society. According to the understanding of the archeologists, the statue symbolized fertility. Besides being female, it had a bloated stomach and breasts also its public area is emphasized to represent productivity while the red ochre dye represented the menstrual blood as the life-giving agent. In the other instance, it is perceived that the 'Venus of Willendorf' is the good luck charm an aphrodisiac, or a mother goddess symbol.

Works Cited

"Woman of Willendorf and Venus of Willendorf." Thenagain.Info, 2018

Cambridge, Matt. "NORTHERN RENAISSANCE ART." The Art Book 12.2 (2005): 37-38.

King, Margaret L. Renaissance humanism: An anthology of sources. Hackett Publishing, 2014.

Lopez, Robert Sabatino. The commercial revolution of the Middle Ages, 950-1350. Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Palisca, Claude V. Humanism in Italian Renaissance musical thought. Yale University Press, 1985.

Swanson, Robert Norman. The twelfth-century renaissance. Manchester University Press, 1999.

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