Part I (Question 2)
The difference between race and ethnicity can be described regarding the definition and distinguishing factors. Race is defined based on an individuals physical characteristics most commonly skin color. The differences in skin color in most races can be attributed to a geographical isolation that resulted in differences in color and texture of the skin with individuals residing in the same region possessing the same physical characteristics. Ethnicity, on the other hand, is a distinction that is usually made based on the cultural traits of an individual. In some cases, religion, language and ancestry can be used as the distinction to define individuals of different ethnic groups. Ethnicity originates from shared history or religion or language which in most cases is perfected in individuals in the same geographical location. Race and ethnicity relate to each other because the basis of the definition of both terms depends on geographical location. The difference in both ethnicity and race is because of physical geographical isolation from each other.
Part II (Question 4)
The common attributes that people might share so that they can be considered for the same ethnic category include language, religion, and a shared history. In most cases, language and religion form the basis of most categories of religion that are made. In certain cases, due to geographical proximity the languages and religion of more two distinct groups may overlap.
Part III (Question 1)
Ethnic nationalism is the notion that nations should be defined by ethnic characteristics that include language, and religion as well as traditions. The ethnic nationalism ideology postulates that the factors that unite people together are the pre-existing ethnic characteristics but not the common political rights. Ethnic nationalism often leads to conflicts because rather than using rationality in the decisions that are reached on matters that affect a nation, emotional attachment to the existing ethnic categories usually takes an upper hand. Also, in most cases those who rule will always be from the group who are considered to be the ethnic majority. This usually results in a lack of satisfaction in the other ethnic categories because they do not get adequate representation in matters that affect them.
Part IV (Question 2)
The civil rights movement in the United States describes the ethnic conflict that existed between the whites and the African-Americans. The movement that was started to challenge racial segregation is considered to have developed from slavery because the state did not offer the same services to slaves and masters. After the abolition of slavery, the laws that had been set offered the whites more privileges and as such an upper hand over the other ethnic classifications. The discrimination that the civil rights movement was seeking to be abolished was segregation particularly in schools, employment opportunities, and public amenities. Also, the movement was advocating for voting rights as well as the elimination of the discrimination that existed on housing. In earlier stages the violence was managed through the use of violence so as to compel the Africans-Americans to desist from participating in the civil rights movement. The conflicts that existed between the different ethnic categories in the United States was managed through amendment of existing laws and the passing of new laws that enabled equal rights to all ethnic classifications. Also, the ethnic conflicts that existed in the United States have been managed through the use of civic nationalism as opposed to ethnic nationalism. The use of civic nationalism has greatly facilitated the peaceful co-existence of different ethnic categories in the United States.
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