The term Latino/a is used to mean individuals with the ancestry from Mexico, Cuba and Puerto Rico among others and living in the United States. The word Hispanic is used in the US census to refer to thing groups instead of the word Latino/a. Due to immigration, there has been the development of a varied range of phenotypes which means currently Latinos have features of indigenous groups, Blacks, fair-skinned Europeans and Asians (Lago, 2011).
One core factor in the Latino culture is the how they develop and maintain their interpersonal relationships. This means that respect is maintained along vast networks of families and friends. Each member of the group has a responsibility which might be wisdom, responsibility, obedience and resourcefulness (Lago, 2011). Great importance is attached to the concept of familism and external help is only sought after nuclear and extended resources are depleted. This means serious cases such as mental illness can be delayed before seeking help. This involvement of the extended family might be a source of stress if decisions are negative.
The Latino family structure is hierarchical in which most authority is accorded to parents, males and older members with the father being the authoritative figure. The older siblings are required to protect the younger ones. There are restrictions concerning adolescent sex behavior, but male members are accorded more freedom. The family hierarchy and how decisions are made are essential in the assessment (Lago, 2011). Acculturation and varying views result in conflicts. Counselors might realize some success in families which are less acculturated. This is through reframed of various issues and negotiation of cultural norms and values that conflict.
In Latino families, there is gender role expectation which often results in conflicts. Men may lack confidence in some areas, feel isolated and depressed and conflicts might arise from the need to be consistently performed in certain roles. There are also conflicts among the women. In the assessment, the therapists are required to evaluate how much the client adheres to the traditional gender norms. Counselors are required to help the males especially in the case of anxiety brought about role change (Lago, 2011).
Religion is also essential in which prayers are used to request for guidance and a source of comfort during distress. Latinos believe in the inevitability of the misfortunes. Religious and spiritual beliefs need to be considered. With this knowledge, the therapist can make the most appropriate decision in helping the situation.
The role of genders also rendered conflict among the Latinos. Traditionally, men are considered to be strong and dominant unlike their female counterparts who are expected to nurture the families. This role difference enhanced conflict men felt isolated and depressed, need for consistency and lack of confidence in particular areas of power. The conflict arising due to genders does not however hinders their stay nor cooperation. The Latinos endeavor to overcome them and continue living harmoniously.
Moreover, Latinos had cultural strengths resulted from the Families playing their roles well. This is justified by Cinthyas case who grew in poverty but later joined Columbia University to pursue a degree course. The latter attributed her success to Family. Generally, Latinos were able to survive with hardships and successes. Their culture and religion enabled them to propel from one social level to another. Chapter 18: Counseling multiracial decent individuals
The young boy whose name is Hector, his mother is European America, and his father is immigrant from Mexico was referred to counseling committee because he repelled the remarks and sneaking out of school. He was always claiming of his identity of being white. He admitted his mistake later and though he didnt want strangers to make the insulting comments on the Mexico people. Halle Berry, daughter to Caucasian talks of the Identity of her daughter as black on U.S.
Organization of the collaboration of EL Dia de Los Muertos was organized by the Latino adult man during a holiday when the families of Mexico have the remembrance of the dead and the life continuity of life. By doing that the man received the responses on such questions as why are you doing that? The individuals of the multiracial often face the challenge of the question, what are you? For many years the individual in multiracial has been fighting for the entity right to be belonging to the group of racial. Referring to the case of Hector counseling has helped him understand where his ambivalent feelings have come from on his heritage as the Mexican. Individuals having mixed race heritage are mostly not needed, they are neglected, and they have been considered as not existing regarding materialism of education, portrayals in media and the psychological literature.
They experienced stressors which were unique and had a relationship with their own racial and the ethnic identities (Sue & Sue, 2016). For instance, many of the minorities of new comers to racial realized that their groups were receptive and also supportive on their side. The group was also placed in a situation which was awkward which could not make them acceptable by any of the group. On the other hand, most of the children of the minority group expected the psychological support and the emotional support from their parents.
The biracial boom of the baby begins in the year 1967; this was the year when the laws which were against racial mixing were repealed. This brought the increase in the interracial marriage and the rise in biracial children increase in U.S.
The number of people who were reported to be more than the racial and the 97% vast majority of the U.S was reported (Sue & Sue, 2016).
Counseling Arabs and Muslim Americans
In an assessment to evaluate the character of different ethnic groups, a large group of teenagers who were asked in an interview about the roles that they would like to play in a movie portrayed that the Arab Americans are more prone to terrorism. There was a religious rivalry where people feared expressing their religion in a direct way. This is exemplified by the case where a New York City cab was murdered upon his expression of being a Muslim.
The two waves which majority of Arab Americans arrived introduced civil war and conflicts pertaining religion. The fact that the second groups majority were Arab-Israeli triggered more of a rivalry than cooperation between them and other Muslims including Arabs. Being followers of Islam, the name of their religion means submission to God. The Muslim religion is growing at a very fact rate in America regardless of being Sunnis or Shiite. The family structure and the values of the Arab Americans can be evaluated to be dependent on their originality. Regarding the case of parenthood as one of the elements of family structure, parents are expected to be close to their children for as long as possible. This is the time when the eldest sons are trained to be the head of the families once their time comes (Sue & Sue, 2016).
Arab and Muslims seem to have cultural strengths in that their religion provided them with guidance and moral support in dealing with problems. On the other hand, there were many challenges faced by them including stereotypes, Racism and Discrimination.
Culture, values, and religion differ in a significant way between Arabs and communities where Muslim Americans lived in. Therefore, there is a need for therapists to make a determination of the background and beliefs regarding the parties involved rather than making a response based on a stereotype point of view (Sue & Sue, 2016).
Cancelling Jewish Americans.
This chapter presents a religious view and comparisons based on loyalty and responsibility. According to this chapter, the American Jews are seemingly loyal to Israel yet another group believe that the death of Christ was a responsibility of the Jews (Sue & Sue, 2016). The chapter, however, makes a critical evaluation regarding religion and peoples perception of them.
Many Jewish Americans are subject to prejudice and discrimination. The later comes on their way despite them having been successful in their endeavors. Comparatively, the Jewish Americans get discriminated almost the same way that African Americans do.
The ethnic identity of many Jewish individuals is associated with their historical background. In fact, most of the renowned ones involve traditional culture and ancestry. However, not all Jewish Americans want their ethnic identity to be revealed. Some of those who were alienated from their culture believe that such exposure may render them as people with low dignity.
The Jewish people had experienced a lot of torture back in the ages due to peoples view of them that they were only power hungry and scapegoated. Another period in the Jewish history is when roughly 6 million of them were murdered (Sue & Sue, 2016). The murder cut across all the Ages and gender. The killings and torture lead to the conclusion that the Jewish Americans were indeed unvalued based on their religious affiliations.
Judaism is one God who is believed to have created mankind. This was brought about by one of the Jewish earliest religions that were classified as a monotheistic religion. According to this religion, God gave the Jews commandments that would guide them upon the seal of a covenant. God's commandments and the Jewish faith in religion have had a great impact on their religious norms (Sue & Sue, 2016). Despite the prejudice that they get, Jews have not relented on serving as per their religious requirements from them.
Counseling of the immigrants and the refugees
The community of the Latinos leaving in Washington college town were on Friday hid behind the closed doors succeeding the immigration raid. Relatives had scrambled to find the care of the children who were left behind. The agents leading the immigration arrived as they give orders and pulling down the doors when the husband of the Barrientos wanted to leave for work.
The students who were Latinos vanishes from Alabama government schools due to the rules and regulations that were all over the state. This laws cracks down the issue of immigration that was not allowed. Most of the district having the largest immigrants reported the unexpected migration of Latinos children who told the officials they were to go out because of the enforced laws.
The analysis shows that about 33.5 million immigrants live in U.S. The reason for the migration was: poverty escape, searching for good life and the political unrest. Also, it was found that the immigrant's percentage with the degree holders were high as compared with that adult that were born in U.S and 33% of the population were ongoing high school students. The students who were immigrants were the dropout students, and they had 21% rate in the year 2009 which was seen to be higher than the average of the national. The estimation of the immigrants who were legally admitted to being permanent residents were 36% of the population.
Most of the immigrants held the system of cultural beliefs which were collectivistic and therefore there was consideration of the interpersonal relationships social network to be of more important. There was, therefore, the stressing of the autonomy, mastery and the environment control. The value of the systems of the mental health to the independence separated the functioning of mental from the functioning physically attributed to the causation. The counselors also carelessly enforce their system of believing on the population of the immigrants and disrepute communication of the worldview. These cou...
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