Biological warfare which also known as germ warfare is the use of infectious agents or biological toxins for instance viruses, and fungi with the sole purpose of killing or incapacitate people, plants or animals as an act of war. Biological weapons are replicating entities that replicate within the host victim. It worth noting that Entomological warfare is deemed to be a type of biological weapon. In the battlefield, biological weapons are used in numerous ways so as to acquire either a strategic or a tactical dominance over the rival by threat or military deployment. Biological weapons like most of the chemical weapons they are used as area denial weapon. Biological weapon medium may be either lethal or harmless, and they can be deployed on a single person, a group of individuals or the whole population. Biological weapons are manufactured, acquired then stockpiled or used by a country or by terrorist groups whereby if it's a terrorist group if they use the biological weapon covertly it is considered bioterrorism (Heap 1417-1417).
At the beginning of the 20th century, the germ theory, as well as the advanced in bacteriology, chipped in an advanced form of refinement to the deployment of bio-agents in the battlefield. Biological sabotages that were in the form of anthrax, as well as glanders, were deployed for the Imperial German government during the period of World War I which had normal results. In 1925 the Geneva Protocol illegalized the use of chemical weapons as well as biological weapons. Later as the start of World War II approached, the Ministry of Supply in the UK initiated a Bio-weapon program which was to be run by Paul Fildes who was a recognized microbiologist. Winston Churchill supported this Bio-Weapon weapon and within no time anthrax, tularemia, botulism toxins, and brucellosis had been weaponized (Monath 1423-1423). Despite the fact that the United Kingdom didn't offensively use the biological weapons they created on their own, the program was the maiden to successfully weaponized multiple lethal pathogens as well as bringing them into industry production. After the United States of America had entered the World War II, there was pressure on the British to establish a similar research program for an Allied pooling of resource which resulted in the establishment of a massive industrial complex in 1942 at Fort Detrick, Maryland (Monath 1423-1423).
The use of biological as well as chemical weapons was criticized by the international declarations as well as treaties notably the 1907 Hague Convention (IV) honoring the laws as well as conventions of war on land. The attempt to stiffen this prescription led to its cessation in 1925 by the Geneva Protocol which illegalized the deployment of asphyxiating, lethal or any other gasses commonly known as the chemical weapons and also the use of the bacteriological methods of warfare (The New York Times XX6). Bacterial modes of warfare are now known to entail other biological agents apart from bacteria, for instance, Viruses, and rickettsia which were not known at the time of signing the Geneva Protocol. Nevertheless, the Geneva Protocol never illegalized the manufacturing, production as well as storage of either the chemical weapons or biological weapons. Attempts by the League of Nations to completely shut down any development, production or storage of chemical as well as biological weapons in 1930 failed. Later in March 1975, the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention were enacted which banned all weapons of mass destruction (The New York Times XX6).
The occurrence of recent threats as well as attacks primarily by terrorist groups has pinpointed biological weapons as an issue that has attracted major concerns both from US military as well as the civilians and the global community. The 2001 anthrax attack on the US Capitol as well as some news agencies drastically raised the concern over the threats posed by the biological weapons. The recent concerns about biological weapons may have been based on traditional strategy. It's paradoxical that the documented actual biological weapons attacks are less than in the previous eras ("Biological Weapons: New View From The Pentagon" 5-5). For biological weapons, there is another variable other than just the number of attacks which can push this traditionally back-burner concern to the top priorities of the national security. The notable change in technology, as well as extensive scientific research, had drastically increased the danger factor of the biological weapons since it has grown the scope of capabilities by enabling the traditional approaches to be impossible and simplifying what was initially too complex ("Biological Weapons: New View From The Pentagon" 5-5).
In conclusion, Biological warfare is also known as germ warfare, and it's the deployment of communicable agents or biological toxins, for instance, viruses, bacteria or fungi with the sole purpose of killing or incapacitate people, plants or animals as an act of war. In 1900 the germ theory, as well as the advanced in bacteriology, chipped in an advanced form of refinements to the use of bio-medium on the battlefield. The deployment of biological as well as chemical weapons was criticized by the international declarations as well as treaties notably the 1907 Hague Convention (IV) honoring the laws as well as conventions of war on land. The attempt to stiffen this proscription led to its cessation in 1925 by the Geneva Protocol which illegalized the use of asphyxiating, lethal or any other gasses commonly known as the chemical weapons and also the use of the bacteriological methods of warfare.
"Biological Weapons: New View From The Pentagon." Nature 323.6083 (1986): 5-5. Web.Heap, S. B. "Scientists Against Biological Weapons". Science 294.5546 (2001): 1417-1417. Web.Monath, T. P. "BIOLOGICAL WARFARE: Strengthening The Biological Weapons Convention". Science 282.5393 (1998): 1423-1423. Web.The New York Times, "Germs In The War.: A Frenchman Examines Their Possibilities As Weapons". 1934: XX6. Print.
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