Historically, many ethnic groups moved to the United States due to circumstances and some it was because of the opportunities that were in America. This was so as it was among the first countries to have independence. This made America ahead of many nations, and there were many opportunities that people from other countries came to enjoy while ethnic groups like the Black-Americans were victims of the slave trade. The American government has influenced their stay in America differently using different negative or positive laws. Below is a discussion on how the different legislation that affected the various racial groups.
Chinese Racial Group
The Chinese people migrated to the United States because of railway and construction of the railway. The people provided cheap labor which was sufficient for the Americans. However, there was the lack of gold, and the Chinese community found themselves in trouble. They had to live in informal places in San Francisco and take up low-wage jobs. These jobs that included laundry and hotel jobs were not sustainable as they were used as cheap labor. However, in the 1870s the anti-Chinese animosity was politicized. Some of the leaders passed laws that left most Chinese in tension in the places they resided. There was increased violence in places they lived and protest that left the Chinese people massacred. Some of the states banned the Chinese people to live in their communities even while some entrepreneurs did not support it. This made the Chinese people to only live in the San Francisco Bay where the immigrants first settled when they came to America. Unfortunately, there was the introduction of anti-Chinese law at the bay, and the Chinese were migrating now using the Mexican border. The government introduced even harsh conditions for the Chinese, and they fled to Canada. Still, the Americans pressured Canada, and they introduced high taxes for the Chinese who migrated to Canada. Luckily there was an earthquake at the place where the building that stored the documents of the Chinese identity was and many Chinese people lied about their identity. They use the Chinese who had American citizenship and claimed to be related to them, which secured their stay in America. With time, the Chinese government fired the ambassador of America to China after he used abusive terms on Chinese people. Some of the religious leaders in power overcame this hatred and harmony was restored between China and America in 1891.
As shown above, it is evident that during crisis politically, economically and socially there is pressure on people who are non-citizens in America. As long as they are tensions then the immigrants suffer. However, when there is the absence of pressure, there is a mute state of interaction with the ethnical groups in America. This is not only for the Chinese people but also in the other different groups we will discuss below. This is not a good image to stick with as a nation as it creates undercurrents of hatred from other countries.
According to Herrera(Pg 75), the Cuban migrants had a decent reception than the Chinese. The United States used policies that facilitated the Cuban people to access the citizenship of the country after one year. The only limitations were based on health and criminal records. The people of Cuba would access more opportunities as compared to other immigrants. Some of the Cuban refugees were resettled in different countries such as Spain and Australia using the United States connections with the countries. Also, in the 1960s the American government improved its ties with the Cuban Government and enabled it had a unique migration lottery program that facilitated more refugees to America. Unlike other situations, the spouses and children of the people who won the lottery accompanied them as well. Unfortunately, there was an issue with some of the refugees when the America soldiers at the border decided to attack them. Later, a woman capsized, but she did not receive any help, so she died. The Cuban refugees used the Texas-Mexico border and settled in Houston.
As shown above, the U.S.A government support different people based on the hidden interest that the country has with the country in question. Absence of an agreed policy that enables the United States government makes the government treat the refugees with a bad attitude that is inhumane.
The America-Mexican war triggered the Mexican migration into the United States. The war made most people run the USA for safety. Also, people fled into the U.S in search of better job opportunities. Most people accessed America without restriction as they worked in the informal sector as railway contractors and farmers. It led to the development of the informal settlement where the Mexican lived. The people worked, and they provided cheap labor for the Americans, so there were no restrictions for the Mexican. Even later when there was and Emergency Quota Act the Mexicans accessed America with exemptions since they agreed to a smaller pay that facilitated the Americans to achieve greater profits through cheap labor. The economic crisis in 1929 increased their allowances and put better living conditions for the Mexicans in the U.S.A as shown by Foley(Pg 50 ). The Mexican government participated and enabled their people to get more improved labor laws. In return, the American government asked if the Mexican who entered America illegally would go back to their country.
In 1952, the body that was in charge of restricting visas to Mexicans was regulated, and more immigrants were allowed into the nation. This program was terminated in 1965 which led to the shortage of people who wanted to work for low wages in America. It took two years for people to access the visas during that time. However, the Mexican government came up with a solution and industries that were owned by foreigners were created to meet the needs of the Mexicans in Mexico. These factories were called Maquilas. These plants exploited the Mexicans as the firms were managed by American and they were now in a position to get cheap labor that was minimal in America. Later, the immigrant and reform act was amended and all the Mexicans who lived in the United States for more than ten years and those working as farmers were issued residential permits.
As discussed above, again there is a repeat of the evil image of America. Freedom for non-Americans is expensive unless they are willing to provide what America needs. Apparently, America used Mexicans and achieved their profits at the expense of cheap labor while the Mexican were given residential permits.
The Black American were the people who migrated to America as a result of the slave trade in Africa. Also, they've had a tough time claiming the residential permits as Americans. Black-Americans were discriminated because of color. They could not access different resources that were given to the White people who were citizens just like they were. It was through a revolution by Martin Luther King Junior that there was a reduction of the discrimination of the Black people in America. Compared with the three other groups of refugees, the Black Americans have suffered major painful events that are inhuman and cannot be justified. These people were forcefully drawn from their nations, but they continued to suffer in the hands of White People. These people were incriminated for offenses that were not incremental for the white people. They were denied equal opportunities in social amenities making their lives miserable, and they lived as poor people. Their lives were threatened, but there has been a new outlook at the Black-Americans presently with the decrease of discrimination.
Again, the Americas have shown a similar story for the four different groups. Unless they are benefitting from people in America accessing America can be a nightmare. The individuals who have gone to the extremes have died while fighting for equality of the minority groups in America. The majority has the minority pay for mistakes that cannot be clearly defined. The Black-Americans were employed as a means of cheap labor. The people could not access education that was high quality to make them develop themselves and become qualified for better opportunities. In fact, for the black people, there were schools for blacks and schools for white people. Their migration stories involved a life or death situation. This created a tension between people as the government supported the natives of their land. They created violence in the society that led to some of the social vices in the society such as stealing. Incriminating the black people unfairly ensured that their population did not outgrow the white people. They arrested majorly the male people an incidence that was viewed as a form of inequality in the society. This made the young boys engage in drugs and alcoholism in the community. Moreover, the women were left alone to provide for their families and take care of them by themselves which led to destroying the core unit of the society the family.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Foley, Neil. Mexicans in the making of America. Cambridge, Massachusetts : : The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, , 2014.
Herrera, Andrea O'Reilly. Cuba : idea of a nation displaced. Albany : : State University of New York Press, , 2007.
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