The Growth of the Cities During the Western Expansion 1860-1890

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The current cities of America namely Chicago, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, St. Louis ,New Orleans among others have developed over a long period of time to the realization of the said cities that are currently magnificent places. The history of these cities dates back to 1800 during expansion of America towards the Western parts of the continent. It is incumbent to note that there are multiple factors that resulted to the said expansion. These reasons range from acquisition of land to searching for religion freedom. The distinguished group that is dominantly known for having trailed towards westwards searching for parcels of land for settlement so as to get religion freedom are Mormons.

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Western Expansion 1860-1890

Louisiana territory stretched towards Gulf of Mexico from New Orleans. It further stretched to Western part of River Mississippi. Thomas Jefferson sent a group of citizens to purchase New Orleans from France. Nonetheless, Emperor Napoleon offered them the parcel of land having paid $15 million CITATION Bon16 \l 1033 (Bongiorno, 2016). In 1802, Jefferson instructed his secretary alongside military advisor to plan for an expedition in which they were to go and survey the land that they had purchased from France. O step up the security in the said territorial influence, US corps were set there to safeguard the land upon the treaty that was reached to avoid invasion of other European States to the already purchased piece of land. William Clarke was appointed for the mission of exploration to really discover the sea route and everything that was related to Louisiana CITATION Bon16 \l 1033 (Bongiorno, 2016). Notably, after two and half years, they had achieved their objective. The expedition realized multiple fruits as the government could now make direct contact to more than seventy two Native American.

Monroe Doctrine

According to Kennedy (2016), Monroe Doctrine was adopted in 1823 and it majorly emphasized on the need of expanding America westwards towards uncolonized areas. Moreover, the doctrine categorically stipulated the need of making America independent country and that can be able to carry its own activities autonomously without the interference of British whatsoever. At latter stage, the event unfolded to the realization of given act that was duped Indian Removal Act and the Trail of Tears that was signed by President Jackson Andrew. The enactment of this law was aimed at removal of Indians from their settlement area to pave way for the Native American CITATION Boy13 \l 1033 (Boyer, 2013). It was one of the strategy that was geared at extending America a territorial influence and further allowing the native to get piece of land for settlement. Some controversies emerged over the ownership of Oregon territory. The British claimed ownership whilst the Americans too said that they had the rightful ownership of Oregon territory. This differences almost resulted to war between the British and US. To avert the situation, President John Quincy used to his dexterous skill to bring the situation to normalcy and control. He employed both the draconian and diplomatic approach when the situation called for. In 1840, America began their west push to Mississippi into lands which were not occupied. It is incumbent to note that people went to West in search of various items ranging from silver, gold, land and freedom of religion. For instance, the Mormon were looking for parcel of land to settle as they felt that they were oppressed on their then land. This led to the notable trail that was duped the Mormon Trail to the Great Salt Lake, the current Utah state CITATION Gol15 \l 1033 (Goldfield, 2015). The issue of ownership of Oregon was not fully solved, there were yet some multiple complain from the side of the British that they divide the parcel of land into an agreed proportion. This prompted President Polk to come out strongly and clearly about the issue. He being an autocratic leader stated explicitly that he would not relent on the move of acquisition and ownership of Oregon land as whole. The use slogan to safeguard Oregon was 54-40 or fight. This message was strongly sent to the British as a warning in case they decided to continue questing and compelling America to share part of Oregon territory. Polk was a vicious president and would do anything to protect the acquired territory.

Upon the discovery of gold around America River by Marshall, at Coloma in California; the word went viral like hellfire and most people from different parts of the world arrive at California to seek for this precious material, gold. At around 1848, there were around 90,000 gold miners around the river CITATION Ken16 \l 1033 (Kennedy, 2016). They decided to settle around the place. Eventually, in 1855, the number rose to 300,000 people and more people later on streamed in large numbers than even before. This led to great number of people settling around Coloma a place which is on the western side of America. This was another notable way that resulted to the growth of the cities of Coloma in California and other cities that emerged due to peoples encroachment for settlement. The above scenario show how most of the earliest towns in America came into being.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Bongiorno, F. (2016). British Empire. In 4. Australasian and Pacific. The Encyclopedia of Empire.

Boyer, C. H. (2013). The enduring vision. In A history of the American people. Cengage Learning.

Goldfield, D. (2015). Confederate Cities. In The Urban South During the Civil War Era. A. L. Slap, & F. Towers (Eds.). University of Chicago Press.

Kennedy, D. M. (2016). The brief American pagean. In a history of the republic. Cengage Learning.

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