Paper Example on Jim Crows Law

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Middlebury College
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Jim Crow drafted articles of what will take a man of color to vote in the southern estate. The southern states comprised of Alabama, South Carolina, North Carolina, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. The voters were required to pay their poll tax, register and have the certificate of registration in their possession. The level of literacy also mattered if they considered registering as voters. If the man of color was able to read and write, they were allowed to vote. In states like Alabama South Carolina and Louisiana, if the man of color was not able to read and write, they were allowed to register as voters if their property possession was more than $300. In Florida, Kentucky. Texas and West Virginia, the man of color, was required to be a residence of any of the stated to register as a voter. A convict of any crime was banned from registering as a voter because they were not allowed to cast a vote. In some states like Alabama, the man of color must be engaged in a kind of employment, most of the year before the elections unless they are physically unable to work. In most of the states in southern states, the man of color was required to be a residence of the state for more than two years to qualify for registration as a voter. The man of color was also required to be in good terms with the neighboring white folks as their opinion on them was utmost considered during registration as voters.

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In a post published as the Jim Crow Car on The Richmond Planet, a poem about car transportation, it addressed the troubles the colored man underwent in the public transportation. He referred the blacks person position as the twixt smoker section back and front, meaning their place while traveling was filled with smoke but the white people justified that it was right for the black people to travel under such conditions. Other races including Chinese and Indians were allowed to sit with the white people, but the man of color was not allowed in the audience no matter how clean they were.

The colored man was singled out from the rest of the white folks, as Rev. Walter and Brooks said they were used as a mark for shafts of scorn all night long. It was a mark of golden rejection as referred by Rev. Walter and Brooks as their race was not considered of worth thus the pain, bitter sting was inflicted by their colour. They end the poem as a prayer to God to give them strength to bear the pain inflicted on them and that God avenges for them.

An article in the Washington times by the editor of the paper was arguing about an article by J. F. N. on the Times Mail Bag that he advocated for the isolation of the colored people from the white people and on the other hand, he does not agree with Jim Crow law. The editor of the Washington Times also agrees with the segregation law but does not concede with Jim Crow law. He says some people think that its an ignominy to be colored and Jim Crow law will finally abolish the race. The people of color ought not to try to be equals of the white man but rather rivals. They ought to embrace their color and strengthen it by accepting their habits and pride. When the editor spoke to educated people of color, they agreed to the segregation law and the idea of pushing for the people of color to be allocated part of the United States like what was done to the Indians. The editor concluded by saying both white and colored people should pull the Jim Crow law all over the United States and apart from just Colombia.

The arrest of Prof. William H. H. Hart, a colored lawyer due to the public address of a large congregation in Lincoln Temple. He was talking to the black folks about his discovery of abolishing the barrier against them by the laws of the state on the provision of separate accommodation of train cabins for both the white and the people of color. Before he was arrested, he said that there is no need for them to wait for the fourteenth amendment of the constitution as the Supreme Court nor the white people favorite the idea. He continued to say that the amendment will someday come to be implemented and grow, for it is the main vessel to orchestrate modern times. He urged that commerce law will be their right-hand aspect that eliminates religion, morality, state authority race, and color. He considers himself the leader who will free them from the contemptible Jim Crow law. He said Jim Crow law is the indication of a much deeper rot body of politics and prejudice of American citizens rights. He mentioned the demise of the existing law separating colored citizens from the white folks in theaters and restaurants and also leisure creational facilities. He mentions that Jim Crow law has found its foundation on an easy patch on victimizing Afro-American. So, he concludes by saying Jim Crow law is yet to receive resistance of 90000 colored folks of the state and the pressure it will exert on it with unity and capable leadership altogether.

In 1920, an article in Caytons Weekly was published addressing miscegenation in Mississippi. The fact the white folks especially men were allowed to debauch women of color and breed with them which led to the emergence of new breed mulattoes, between a white male and colored female. A preacher was arrested in this regard to spreading an article published by National Association for the Advancement of Colored People on Crisis in New York City. Crisis advocated for the marriage between colored and white people. In Mississippi, that was not even considered a topic to address as it was referred to as a unpardoned crime. Black male and white women were not allowed to cohabit for that matter, even the mulattoes. The white people of Mississippi are strongly against the miscegenation of white women and men of color. It prevents the progress of cohabitation between white people and the Afro-American.

Use of secondary sources

Racial segregation in the USA was not only a regional but also a national problem (Victoria, 2012). African-American were segregated, and there were various desegregation campaigns carried out to the amusement in using swimming pools, parks, and dance halls. Recreation was a frivolous aspect of the fight for equal rights during the Jim Craw Era. Integrated public accommodations struggle never was it fully distinct during the equal employment and housing struggle. In the struggle to disintegrate recreational facilities, Africa-Americans were perceived as a threat to white consumerism. Activists fighting for the equality were attacked aggressively by whites for segregation. White segregationists privatized public places into clubs whereas other recreational spaces were closed down to humiliate the African-American further. It is evident that Civil Rights Act 1964 acted slowly in changing the segregation regarding leisure conditions which lead to increased racial uprising in the 1970s as a result of frustrations to the African-Americans.

Jim Crow enacted laws that enacted the negatively affected the black community. There were freedom restrictions of freed people, and it replicated slavery where the blacks had to work in unfavorable working contracts, their mobility was limited and were denied citizenship rights. Schools were racially segregated and had disparate conditions. The laws irrationally constrained mobility of African American by imposing limits on privileges to trade and purchase a property. Southern states forged constitutional amendments to legal maneuvers where law force and intimidation disfranchised African-Americans. Blacks were consistently employed to perform most difficult jobs and in turn paid lowest wages (Thomson, 2008). The black were faced with constricted educational chances, limited economic possibilities, deficient housing options, increased disablements and death rates, increased unemployment and unremitting poverty. Jim Crow created race quandary; the whites developed conditions where the blacks were access to resources to solving problems, imposed threats in regards to complaining violence advance or protest.

As a result of Jim Crows law developed customary signs that noted white/ white only and colored marked the southern landscape in unrestricted venues and hospitals, churches, libraries, waiting room, cemeteries, prisons and in asylums. As a result, there were divisions in public transportations, public housings, birth residence, and death. Laws regulated segregation, and social relations and unequal circumstances developed rapidly. By law whites and blacks could not marry or by custom, socialize. In contrary to the Maryland law, they were forever prohibited and void. African-American could not complete against the whites at any level of education and co-curricular activities. The Mississippi law prevented the printing, publishing, and circulation of material urging or offering arguments that favor marriages between white and blacks or social equality. Persons held guilty of doing so were charged guilty of a misdemeanor.

Protests to Jim Crows law were proved futile due to the structure complicity in the law enforcement. To intimate African-Americans further, Ku Klux Klan developed and started operating as a paramilitary arm of the Democratic Party. It imposed individual attacks, burned schools and started lynching. In addition to this, white officers harassed black people; they disrupted black neighborhoods and assaulted black women. Blacks were arrested for exaggerated charges, denied reasonable counsel, and served punitive sentences. In the courtrooms, African American rarely received essential counsel nor served on juries. White juries and judges hardly attended to black lawyers argument to cases if they happened to appear in courtrooms (Linda, 2012). White juries decided contrary to African American defendants even if guilty. Black people regardless of whether guilty or not suffered severe sentences of extended jail term, peonage and enforced farm labor.

Blacks were lynched, seized and ferociously murdered by white mobs. The reason for lynching was as a result of accused raping though the cases were hardly validated. Lynching resulted when blacks went out of line, lack of enough deference demonstration, action out of resentment, devoted assault or homicide in self-defence. In riots such as the Atlanta Riot of 1906, 1917 East Saint Louis Riot and the 1921 Tulsa Riot, whites conveyed ethnic rage by burning homes, churches and schools, entering black localities and in turn assaulted men. Women and children. African American troopers in regalia faced indiscriminate attacks, and subject to retribution for wearing a sign of American nationality (Thomson, 2008). African American women were also faced with sexual attacks by whites.

Eventually, African Americans started migrating to other favorable western states like Kansas. All colored people who wanted to migrate to Kansa required to pay $ 5.00. Blacks after migration had to endure prejudices of whites since not all welcomed those emigrants since there were growing worries and feelings, it hence raised serious contemplations connecting to fear and confusions. In these western states, African Americans lived with more privilege in comparison to the southern states, for instance, the rate of blacks deaths was slow.


Hall, Chas E., (1904). The Appeal, A National Afro-American Newspaper. Adams Bros. Editors and Publishers. Retrieved 5 April 2017, from

Horace, C. (1920), Fighting Miscegenation, Caytons Weekly. May 8. Vol IV, No 47. Retrieved 5 April 2017, from

Osborne, Linda Barrett, (2012). Miles to Go for Freedom: Segregation & Civil Rights in the Jim Crow Years. (1st ed.). Cengage Le...

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