The term legacy system referred to old computer system, out dated software or app that is used in the place of new updated versions. IT system becomes legacy system because of many reasons such as
Fast Change in commercial life or market requirements
Use of old programming languages
Because of Un consistent documentation
Poor knowledge of team members
Development of new and more suitable technologies
Cost of modification is too high
Security issues or Risk Factors
Briefly describe an example of a legacy IT system with which you are familiar or have read about in a newspaper, magazine or website. Explain clearly why it should be considered as a legacy system. You must choose a system other than those presented in the module texts.
I found many examples of it legacy system; one of them is US Navy system, they upgrade their hardware after 4years and software after 2 years, but still it becomes legacy system, the problem is every ship system is not updated with plan thats why todays system becomes future legacy system.
Outline one or more ways in which the legacy nature of the IT system you described in part (b) may be assisted or solved. Explain why the solution(s) you describe are suitable for this specific system.
There are many solutions to this problem
Replace this legacy system but it demands high cost
Translate old legacy protocols in to new Internet based protocols
Keep maintaining while using
Data Distribution center is also a good solution for such system to integrate old and new one
These solutions are suitable for system described above because technology changes rapidly, need to upgrade it systems within months instead of years
A focus and timescales for the scenarios?
In this scenario we have two main areas of Focus: Being in charge of the IT on
NSs own trains such as WIFI and sensors, and second one is providing travel information for the rail network as a whole, including for private companies trains, suitable time scale is 10 years
A set of driving forces using the STEEPLE categories?
Using STEEPLE Seven Categories
Socio-cultural: people using manual train system in which management not supported well, less throughput decreases quality or performance, less secure traveling, inconsistent, unreliable
Technological: Globalization, Networking, sensors, technology can save time, ease of internet access, androids phones, real time traveling information, monitoring routes.
Economic: uncertain state of traveling system, uncertainty of economic recovery, confusion among passengers and management, wastage of time and money, un predictable budget
Environmental: Globalization, rapidly increasing technology, spreading awareness and use of technology, automation
Political: problematic support for it in the UK from different political parties, unstable relation among UK parties, relation among UK and European Union are not certain, political unstable states.
Legal: regulation around transport system
Ethical: growing technologies in traveling
A set of around seven short scenarios, if you are using the Davis method if
you are using the key uncertainties method, you should produce the two key variables and the names of four scenarios to fill the quadrants of the matrix?
It is possible to monitor passengers off and on
Technology can optimize travelling
Very difficult to manage large amount of people manually
Growing technology in different countries develop automate traveling systems
Difficult to stable economic condition
Mobiles must be used by passengers to keep up to date
Socially monitoring policy is not acceptable
A more developed set of descriptions of the key scenarios three or four in thecase of the Davis method, all four if using the key uncertainties method?
First based on1, 2 and 3
First: Many countries around Europe trying to progress in technology like India, Chine. Europe try to manage high population in current financial position. Growing of Technology helps to manage this situation. IT based system can make country rich. There are huge IT developers, IT companies in UK. The main purpose is to increase passengers throughput by providing best performance. Technology can save human time, budget. By monitoring passengers on and off, routes or by utilizing this to provide real time information for the ease of customer
Second based on 4 and 5
Second: UK can manage Financial Crises, but it necessary to make some stable changes to avoid risk. Use of IT based Technology enhance country reputation, economical situation and future planning. This makes country more developed. Its very difficult to manage manual system for large amount of people. There must be need to convert it into automate system. Technology helps country to face competition between different developed countries
Third Based on 6 and 7
Enhancement in Communication make world global village, it removed physical distances. By utilizing internet passenger can check information about his station, standing position, train, timings, and seat. There is no need to go physically.
On the other hand its socially impossible to monitor passengers activities, it may cause security or privacy issue. But it necessary to keep information about passenger source and destination
The module describes four different types of action that can be taken in response to identified risks. The Business Continuity Management Toolkit called the actions: treat, tolerate, transfer or terminate. Identify four different risks to the IT system: one which you would treat, one you would tolerate, one you would transfer and one you would terminate. For each risk, describe a suitable action that could be used to mitigate the risk in practice?
Treat: Loss of Information, challenges, change in technology, hardware software issue, security issue etc
Action: We can keep Backup system, Recovery to system to face disaster, keep maintain software and hardware time by time, check again and again accuracy of data.
Explain in your own words the meaning of the term portfolio, program and project management?
The abbreviation of P3M is program, portfolio and project management
The term Project refers to collection of interdependent tasks planned to do with in time, budget to achieve particular goal or to produce desire output
The term Portfolio means desired changes in whole organizations investment in order to get desired or planned objectives,
The term Program refers to a set of relevant projects or complex project to improve output or to produce new one. We can define it a collection of related projects or implementation of related projects in which each sub project has its own value created for desire outcome, in program each sub project has its own value
Project Management means management or coordination of all activities during project development. It includes implementation, planning, designing, budget management, time management, requirements management etc. project management is necessary to achieve desired outcome.
Compare and contrast the APM and PMI definitions of P3M found in Section 4.1 of Block 4 Part 3.
The APM and PMI has very similar definitions but still there are many differences
It includes beginning to advanced project management qualification Global project management qualification
Focus on time, budget and quality same
Powerful in some sectors like defense etcExperience and tanning enhance vale, depend upon organization
Includes professional development PMBok available
Leadership approach From anywhere test (computer based) can be managed
Describe the basic features of the operations function?
Operation management refers to the management or coordination of operations to produce good product, operations includes different functions depends upon organizations nature. To increase production in less cost organizations used different functions, such as Marketing function, Administrative Function, Accounting Function and so on.
The basic features of these functions are to produce best output with in minimum cost and time with maximum quality, this increases organizations profit, and sale and help them to meet customer needs as they are changing rapidly
Describe the features of the basic transformation model and explain the process it represents.
Transformation Model: It is used to analyze operations. Input, transformation process, output are three phases of it, this take input process it and produce customer desired output,
it takes input and transforms it to output; inputs can consist of raw materials, information or people and this process is known as transformation process. From real life we can take example of transformation of milk into cheese.
The steps that can be include in this process are
Changing in physical appearance or characteristics
Changing in ownership
Changing in location
Changing in psychological state and so on
Mostly, three types of inputs are taken people, information or data, things or materials; different types of transformation processes are available depends upon the inputs like Supply, Manufacturer, Transport etc
Which four categories can be used to describe the different types of transformation processes?
Different types of transformations are used according to required desired output
The four categories re
Manufacture in which products are physically create just like bus
Transport in which goods or people are move from one place to other For example taxi service
Supply in which ownership of goods are change.
Service it includes storage of data or clients treatment just like day care centers etcWhat is the purpose of feedback in the transformation process?
Feedback is necessary for operation management; Feedback can be come from inside the company or may be from outside known as Internal Feedback and External Feedback.
The basic purpose of feedback is to
improve quality of output
Feedback helps to produce desired output
Feedback ensures about quality standards
Provides chance to improve functions of operation
Explain how project management and operations management relate to each other, according to the APM and PMI.
Operation Management refers to coordination or management of activities within organization to produce best result, it is used to enhance profit as maximum as possible.
This means the basic purpose is to remove errors in output or make it best.
Purpose of Project Management is almost same to achieve goals, by integrating or executing different strategies,
In PMI project define as Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create unique product, service
However, project management different from operation management in some approaches because they have deferent objectives.
Explain the meaning of the terms digital divide and digital inequality, and the difference between the local and global digital divides?
The term digital divide refers to inequality in use of, access of IT services like technology and communication.
Digital inequality is the replacement of digital divide that refers to division of people, countries, businesses on the basis of use IT based services. Digital inequality refers who can use internet? Who has access to internet? who controls it ? Who is responsible of production? Who owns it? EtcGlobal Digital Divides: It differentiate countries on the basis of use of IT services, global distinction among developed, developing and non developed countries. The use of internet and its related services are increased day by day, but still all countries are not on the same level.
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