Marketing Essay on Psychological Underpinnings of Consumer Behavior

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Middlebury College
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Sensation refers to the instant response when consume senses are initially exposed to the external stimulus of a product marketing. Product cues engage the sensory receptors of customers through smell, taste, and texture. For example, hotels can engage all the senses in their sensory brand marketing. When a client enters in the hotel, he or she may then smell the aroma of the grinding of fresh coffee in the store. Currently, marketing researchers have begun to realize how powerful the response to non-conscious stimuli attract consumers. For example, why does beer taste better in wine than in the glass of water? Why do dresses appear attractive while on a dummy than on a hang? The above examples show that when individuals are matching in one way or another, their senses are amplified (Sebeok, 2001). Manufacturers have now become intelligent. Take for example the campaign carried out by Dunkin Donuts in South Korea. An atomizer released a coffee aroma when the firm jingle played on municipal buses. As a result, more visits were experienced at Dunkin Donuts, an increase of more than 20%. It is, therefore, essential for companies to remain focused effects as compared to visual features. Notably, manufacturers should think about design in a universal way and should use senses to develop and strengthen their respective products (Sebeok, 2001).

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Memory theory

In this theory, customer learns more about the product after the have used it for an extended period and enjoy consuming the product. Every customer stores in memory the utility he has gotten after using a particular product during every previous consumption experience. During buying, the buyer remembers the utility from a subdivision of these involvements to memory and make use of the info to decide his/her taste for the product. The decision then guides the buyer to decide if he can buy the product or not (Shapiro, 2006).

The primary assumption of this theory is that marketers can make use of publicizing to alter the possibility that the customer will recall a satisfactory consumption familiarity. This assumption, which is constant with some literature in psychology allows the manufacture to effect the beliefs of a customer without owning any private information regarding the quality of the product (Mitchell and Johnson, 2000). Notably, consumers not only focus on the amount of advertising the manufacturer has come up with, rather, but the customer also has the right belief about the productions strategy equilibrium. In other words, even though the memory of consumers are limited, they are sophisticated in converting this con and come up with a correct decision in equilibrium. Marketers are therefore required to focus on advertisement psychological mechanism that has an effect on consumer recall. The advert should have a capability of changing bad memories of consumer experience into memories of good ones. The advertisement should focus on less experienced consumers as compared to the experienced customer as such customers has the capability of recalling the product even without marketers making great advertisement (Shapiro, 2006).

Motivation theory

Motivation is an inner drive that replicates goal oriented arousal. From the consumer behavior perspective, the result is the wish for a product and service. It entails trips to fulfill the need and wants physiologically through the buying of a product or service. Consumer needs are the essential of the marketing concept. Motivation theory focuses on all process that drives in an individual to perceive a need and explore a certain course of action to accomplish that need. Maslow, a well-known psychologist, came up with a broadly accepted theory of human motivation. This recognizes five essential levels of human needs that are categorized in order of significance from lower level needs to higher level needs. Maslow signified the importance of satisfying the lower level needs before a need from a top level comes up (Huitt, 2004).

Marketers should understand the motives of their customers to increase their sales. Consumers do have a lot of motives and every purpose changes with different basics. Manufacturers should, therefore, focus on altering the marketing strategies to resolve the conflicts among customers such as approach conflict that arises when customers have more than one choice of the same product. A lot of examples can be looked at in advertising, but the bottom line is that marketers should appeal to some levels of Maslows Hierarchy of Needs, to communicate their messages efficiently to their respective customers. Notably, manufacturers can use motivation theory to align advertising message with the psychological needs so as to focus content and give more appropriate and significant information product and services (Huitt, 2004).

Social class theory

Social stratification tends to be accepted as a fact of life. Currently, every member of the society is stratified into social classes according to their values in the society. Members of a particular social class share common values and the manner in which they think and behave. It is, therefore, clear that consumers only associate with the member from their social class regarding the same values. Social class influences where and how individuals feel they should shop. Lower class prefer local places where they can get friendly services and easy product. Upper class have high consuming power and are confident in their shopping ability (Iftikhar et al..2013).

Consequently, the marketer must target the society basing on these social classes. As such, manufactures can use this theory in coming up with different products that aim at satisfying a certain group within the society. For example, the manufacture can manufacture high-quality, expensive products for the upper class within the community while low quality and cheap products for lower class people (Iftikhar et al. primary.2013).

Cultural Value theory

Cultural value theory comprises of a set of values and ideologies of an individual community or group individuals. Individuals culture decides the way they behave in the community set up. Cultural factors play an essential role in the buying decision of consumers since everyone possesses a variety sets of habit and beliefs that he/she comes up with from the status of his family and background. Marketers often make use of this theory by focusing the manner in which a particular product will change someones life. For example, showing a man in a relaxing setting reading a novel is a consumer culture oriented way to market a bathrobe. Marketers should focus on consumer culture theories to stress the lifestyle advantage of their products and services by encouraging users to view their product as essential to a meaningful life.

Furthermore, culture theory plays an essential role to the marketer as they can use it to avoid targeting some markets. For instance, a pork company cannot establish its plants in Muslim countries since no one will purchase any pork product (Durmaz and Tasdemir, 2014).

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