The articles highlight and discuss various aspects that are related to mental health, the psychological outcomes, the causes of mental health, and the impact of psychological development. In these articles, the bottom line message is on how these various aspects exert an impact on the normal life of individuals regarding thinking and health. The articles further discussed the concepts creatively, and their impact thereof on the lives of persons.
The persons mental health is important and determines the capability of an individual to live and enjoy a healthy life. Even if this is true, one question that remains unanswered is; how is the mental health of a person easily affected and the resultant effect compared to other aspects of a person? This question touches on the reality of the matter given that in the discussed articles, it has been proven that the mental capability of a person is affected
By just reading these articles combined, one gets enlightened, especially those people who are always scared of seeking self-counseling services since the information they may obtain from the exercise may have mental health concerns, which are life threatening. Some of the authors of these articles claim that both negative attitudes and self-stigma pose a direct impact on decisions of seeking counseling. They further presented practices through which mental processes attenuate the barrier of seeking counseling help. The articles authors sought to inform readers about the connection between mental illnesses caused by psychosocial factors and psychotic effects, which lead to a depleted social network and poor social integration for people with mental illnesses. Most psychosocial factors seek to suppress stigmatizing attitudes and mental challenges that can be exhibited publicly. In addition, we can say that the articles were meant to give conclusive information to readers regarding how mental disturbance is likely to affect the psychological development of perinatal fetal development. It can also be deduced from the articles that the psychological development of children is directly affected by the mental disturbances of their parents. This based on the concept that parents act as the life-blood of their children, and this means that if there are psychologically disturbed, then they transfer the same to their children who look up to them. At this juncture, this information becomes an awakening call for parents put their who are fond of falling victims to being stressed and often lack control measures to curb such situations from happening. The end is always in the hospital or in the hands of psychiatrist. To assess the evidence of the underlying mechanisms through which the mental disturbance of the parents is directly or indirectly passed to the fetus, mediating variables like the quality of social life of both fathers and mothers, material support of the sampled families and duration of the parental mental disturbances were used.
Another piece of information that can be drawn from the article is that there is a close relationship between socially ordered disorder and pre-trauma conditions, which lead to collective violence. The article suggested that any violence instigated by a group of people is disturbing and can ordinarily be understood when the surroundings of the people behind the violence are well evaluated.
PART B: RESEARCH DESIGN
Probit regression model was employed where the correlation matrix was used to determine the relationship between self-stigma and decision making for counseling. Since the correlation was positive, it was apparent that there was a relationship between self-stigma and human behavior of making a decision whether to seek for self-counseling services or not. Some of the articles within this discussion have used Probit regression model to determine if self-stigma and negative attitudes towards counseling have a direct effect to help-seeking decisions. In some of the studies undertook by the articles authors, various parameters (including Self-stigma, attitudes toward counseling and psychological distress) affecting human behavior in decision-making had to be quantified.
It was realized that some articles had credible sources of information sampled from different journals and source articles to evaluate the level of stigma of mentally ill people, and the attitude of the public towards the affected people. In some of them, families with members who have mental illnesses in the selected country were sampled and the self-esteem of the family members was determined as well. These acted as study participants and that their conditions were well suited to study.
Regarding the ethical standards raised in the articles, it is clear that the research in all the articles was conducted in an ethical manner. It is for this reason that partakers were fetched from various areas to prevent any direct influence on the process. Additionally, the fact that it involved some participants from the community means that the entire process was in line with the cultural norms in the community. Many of the existing variables in the articles had been studied before and thus showed a historical significance. For instance, some of the articles that analyzed the study outcomes based on the interviews or questionnaires had to source the information directly from respondents. In addition, I can assert that some of the research undertaken and published in the articles was not done in an ethical manner. As always expected, we expected the research in any published material to preserve human dignity and give reason and hope even where there is no hope. This is especially true in the case where the participants are the victims of the study itself. The research was not ethical because according to the report, the highest level of stigma of the people with mental illnesses is highly contributed by the stigma and stereotyping from other people in the public. Yet, the social barrier between them and normal people does not disturb some of the mentally ill people.
It is good to note that some of the article contain research that utilizes the behavioral human traits to determine whether people with mental illnesses are discriminated or not, and if such discrimination attract public discrimination. Some of the variables used in this research included the severity of the stigma in mental illnesses, and how the severity of such illnesses directly influences the stereotyping from the public. Some of the research had to employ the use of observation, and a series of gene tests called Epigenetics to establish whether the maternal behavior and mental disturbance had a direct effect to child psychological problems. In addition, fetal programming and maternal programming methods were also employed to determine the extent at which a child is likely to be affected by maternal mental problems. Other articles employed the use of two models of traumatic experiences, which were compared to determine the effect of individual disorder to other minority individuals against the effect of socio-historical subjects who have a traumatic experience and are willing to take a common move against another group.
PART C: RESEARCH GAP
One of the aspect that stands left out by these articles is failure to address the emergence of these issues and how the progressively affect the lives of individuals. Further, it can be noticed that the articles do not offer a clear explanation and exploration of a connection between the concept and the mental status of a person.
From what has been gathered from the study, it can be affirmed that negative attitudes tied to self-stigma pose a directional effect on a decisions undertaken for seeking counselling. This can further be postulated as follows; that the psychological development of youngsters is directly affected by the mental instabilities of their parents/guardians. Therefore, this statement leads to the assumption that the choice of reducing stigma is an affirmative way of improving the quality of life of people who suffers from mental illnesses. Having considered these aspects, it becomes clear that a persons mental health is easily affected, and that a well-calculated direction a person takes leads that person to enjoy and live a healthy life.
Amalio, B, Blanco, R&Dario, D. (2016). Social (dis)order and psychosocial trauma: Look earlier, look outside, and look beyond the persons. American Psychological Association, 71(3), 187-198.
Lannin, D. G., Vogel, D. L., Brenner, R.E, Todd, A.W., Heath, P. J. (2016). Does self-stigma reduce the probability of seeking mental health information? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63(3), 351-358.
Monforton, J., Vickers, K., & Antony, M. (2012). If Only I Didn't Embarrass Myself in Front of the Class! Social Anxiety and Upward Counterfactual Thinking. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 31(3), 312-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2012.31.3.312
Stein, A, Pearson, R, Goodman, S, Rapa, E, Rahman, A, McCallum, M, Howard, L.M., Pariante, C. (2014). Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child. Perinatal mental health 3, 384, 180019.
Corrigan, P.W., & Penn, D.L. (2016).Lessons from Social Psychology on Discrediting Psychiatric Stigma.Stigma and Health, 1(S), 2-17. doi:10.1037/2376-6972.1.S.2.Retrived 02 June 2016 from:http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,cpid&custid=shapiro&db=pdh&AN=2015-27522-002&site=ehostlive&scope=site
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