According to Lowe (237), the War of the Korean was a civil warfare between the North and South Korea nations which resulted from the United States and the Soviet Union occupation zones which were created at the finale of World War II. The failure to conduct free polls after the World War II in 1948 all over the Korean Peninsula expanded the division which existed in the two sides. The South created a capitalist government while the North established a communist one. The 38th parallel progressively grew into a strong political boundary between the North Korea and the South Korea. Tension intensified even after reunification negotiations. Cross-border raids and skirmishes persisted at the 38th Parallel. The situation accelerated into open war on 25th June 1950 when the forces of North Korea attacked South Korea. The war ended after signing the armistice agreement on 27th July 1953(Leckie, 298). Following this agreement the Korean boundary close to the 38th Parallel resorted and the DMZ (Korean Demilitarized Zone) was created. This paper discussed the impacts of the United Stated of America in this War.
America supplied ammunitions and weapons to South Korea. Immediately after the invasion of the South Korea by the North Korean forces, President Truman Harry S. of the Unites States of America ordered General Douglas Macarthur of the Army, America occupation forces commander in Japan, to ensure safe evacuation of the Civilian of United States and to supply war weapons to South Korea (Dolan, 62). This gave the South Korean forces strength to retreat back and the war became more intensified. But the North Korean army was much strong since the people of Republican China joined them thus continued their Southward drive.
United States forces of naval and air were directed to give full support to the ground units of South Korea. After General MacArthur Douglas examined the battlefront, the commitment of ground forces of the United States was authorized. The South Korean forces joined the United States forces and after Seouls fall, the forces of North Korea paused to regroup. The South Korean army fought back bravely but the North Korean army was strong and pushed them back. The South Korean and United States army was reduced to small unit thus the United Nations sent reinforcement which supported the army to defend the state more valiantly.
The politics of the America had a great impact on the Korean War. Truman who was a Democrat was afraid of seeming to be supporting communism for fear that his Republican opponents would attack him. A widespread suspicious anti-communism sweeping the United States commonly known as the McCarthyism created a predominantly agitated anti-communist environment. Dolan (45) argued that General Douglas acted insubordinately of Truman since MacArthur was prevalent with the Republicans. The firing of the General threatened the impeachment of Truman but the JSC (Joint Chiefs of Staff) protected him.
The involvement of the United States of America in the Korean War brought more problems to President Harry S. Truman. Truman fired General Douglas MacArthur when the General challenged the military strategy publicly. MacArthur went home as a hero, and the popularity of President Truman plummeted. Alongside the backdrop of McCarthyism, not achieving the military victory in the Korean War permitted the Republicans to mercilessly attack Truman. This war indeed badly eroded the political standing of President Harry and the likelihood of winning way of the Fair Deal local legislations became slim (Dolan, 53).
The United States of America was responsible for excavating the civil war in Korea. The fact that America established up a government and appointed officers in South Korea beforehand the official opening ceremony of Syng-Man Rhee was criticized by many people. The establishment of the military government in Korea by General Hodge John deepened the hatred the Korean had to the Japanese and the Korean people who served in the government of Japan. The appointment of the Japanese officials in large numbers to the government of South Korea, Unites States gave support to the Koreans who worked in the Japanese government and who were considered as rebels by the Koreans. This aggravated the attack of South Korea by the North Korea since they saw the South Korean people as rebels.
The America was the reason the Korean land was divided into two without the opinion of Korea and for the pro-Japanese soldiers appointment to the government of the South Korea. With consideration of the situation of post-liberation of Korea from the Japanese regime, the Unites States of America deteriorated the disorganized political condition by each support controverting leaders. America had control over the combined forces command activities hence; they were accountable for military aggression in Korea. The North Koreans resisted the military forces of the United States of America which further worsened the war (Leckie, 361).
The Korean War gave the United States a reason to increase their expenditure on military four-fold. The Peoples Republic of China joined forces with the North Korean army to retreat against the South Korea and the United States army. The United States army reduced in numbers since the North Korean army over strengthened them killing them in large numbers. The bombing of North Korea by America did not affect them a great deal. These necessitated President Truman to increase expenditure on military so that the Army would be double in size and increase the number of Air Groups. The Korean War was responsible for the establishment of Americas series of military base across the world and the huge intelligence and defense organization at home (Goldfield, 870).
The Korean War was the most destructive war of the 20th century. Korea experienced Four million deaths throughout the Peninsula including the civilians. China lost one million soldiers; united states of America lost 36,934 soldiers and 103, 284 were wounded. The war caused social destruction to Korea, especially North Korea where United States bombing destroyed properties and modern buildings. The war strengthened the border between North and South Korea as South turn into a free republic and North remained communist. This social difference between North and South Korea brings conflict between the two nations till date.The war boosted the economy of Japan and the United States. The materials which were being used during the war were bought from Japan. The geographical location of Japan made it a suitable base for the supply of food, harbors, repair, cotton goods, ships for military and airfields. This gave the economy of Japan a dynamic boost. The American economy was also affected since defense spending quadrupled in the times of that war. The Korean War gave Japanese a new beginning with a healthier economy. The economy of Japanese was revived similar to the way the economy of the United States was revived during World War II (Leckie, 304)
The racial integration was as a result of the Americas involvement in the Korean War. During the war, both the white and black servicemen were involved in the battle which bridged the gap of racial discrimination in the United States military forces. President Truman issued an order which aimed at integrating the armed services an issue which the commission on Civil Rights had recommended, but the Korean War helped in initiating that integration. By the finale of the Korean War, the military became one of United States integrated institutions which marked a crucial step frontward into the movement of racial equality among the military forces.
The involvement of America in the war resulted in the greater division of North and South Korea which was a symbol of the impact of Cold War. Families were broken and properties destroyed. After the war, South Korea become more unstable, and it has only sustained progressive economic growth in the present. The North Korea becomes prosperous economically since they were being supported by the Soviet Union. With the collapse of Union of Soviet Royal Republics in 1990, the economy of North Korea went down a big deal and was stricken by feminine which killed 10% of the population (Goldfield, 641). To date, United States is haunted by the Korean War as they worry that North Korea possess the nuclear weapons.
The Korean War was disastrous. The bombing of North Korea by America destroyed its industrial plants. Despite North Koreas hydroelectric and mineral resources, it was struck by poverty and was not able to keep up with the economic pace of South Korea. South Korea received support from the United States of America thus was able to recover the damages faster. Soon South Korea boasted an increase in Gross Domestic Product fourfold compared To North Korea. North remained independent of Peoples Republic of China and Union of Soviet Royal Republics. Since then China has lent economic and political support to the leaders of North Korea (Dolan, 72). The Korean War gave an idea of the nature of war in the era of Cold War.
Thousands of people were displaced due to the destruction of homes. A number of civilians became refugees of neighboring countries. The civilians traveled by foot, ship, and even train so that they would seek refuge across the border. Children were the most affected by this war as they lost homes and parents and relatives. Following the creation of the Korean Demilitarized Zone, thousands of Koreans together with children found themselves separated from families and relatives. Relatives on the 38th Parallel opposite sides could not communicate nor meet. The loss of the relations of families ceased family connections and histories (Goldfield, 735).
Finally, America had both positive and negative impacts in the Korean War which started in 1950 and came to an end in 1953. Americas supply of ammunitions to the South Korea aggravated the war, the combined forces of North Korea and the Peoples Republic of China reduced the United States army which resulted in America increasing its military expenditure. Many Korean lives were lost and with the creation of Korean Demilitarized Zone families and relatives were separated from each other. The war increased Japanese economy and aggravated racial integration of the military in America. The Korean War gave the cold war a new direction and face resulting in technology advancement and formation of treaties that exist to the present time.
Dolan, Edward F. America in the Korean War. Brookfield, Conn: Millbrook Press, 1998. Print.
Goldfield, David. The American journey. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey. Prentice Hall, 1998. Print.
http://encarta.msn.com/text_7%206559607__0/Korean_War.htmlLeckie, Robert. Conflict: The History of the Korean War, 1950-53. New York: Da Capo Press, 1996. Print.
Lowe, Peter. The Origins of the Korean War. London: Longman, 1986. Print.
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