Immunoprevention of Chemical Carcinogenesis through Early Recognition of Oncogene Mutations

2021-05-17 12:03:44
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The problematic issue of oncological diseases continues to be relevant for the modern society. It is obvious that cancer is the adversity of the mankind. Due to mortality rate cancer resides the second place after cardiovascular diseases and the first place due to peoples fear. Many researchers strain after understanding the causes of this disease and finding the ways to prevent and to treat it. Dozens of institutions and hundreds of laboratories around the world are working on this problem, ensuring success in its understanding and slow but steady progress in its prevention and treatment.

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The article under analysis is entitled Immunoprevention of Chemical Carcinogenesis through Early Recognition of Oncogene Mutations. Tahseen H. Nasti, the specialist in the field of immunology, stresses that people diagnosed with cancer were successfully evaded the immune detection that leads to the developing of tumor (Tahseen and others, 2016, p. 2). The inability of endogenous immunosurveillance to preclude tumor progression occurs due to many reasons, taking into consideration the time needed for cells to expand a sufficient number of effective cells responsible for the selection of nonimmunogenic tumor cells. It should be pointed out that the enhancement of initial numbers of the tumor epitopefocused effective T cells, rapid recognition and aggressive elimination of preneoplastic cells may be possible before immune-resistant tumors can develop. The theme of this article is of big interest and importance, because the high neglection of oncological diseases remains despite the fact that diagnostics and treatment are well developed in the modern society. It is rather knowledgeable to discover new information and solution of oncology disease from the given informative article.

The main hypothesis lies in the fact that prevention of the tumor development in the early stages is more successful than treating of the deep-seated disease (Tahseen and others, 2016, p. 2). It is pointed out that the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants which in human organism are associated with epithelial tumors of lung, skin, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and others. Cutaneous exposure to the carcinogenic PAH 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) produces tumors with a characteristic mutation which is the sustained signal transduction for the cell growth. It is necessary to bring into focus the importance of such process as chemical carcinogenesis. The scholars observed that cellmediated immunity to DMBA can be elicited and, as a result, it can influence the tumor development. These observations raise the possibility to overcome the immune evasion and immunosuppressant mechanisms. It should be stressed that the employment of such vaccination techniques promotes an appropriate type of T-cell response to tumor specific antigens expressed at the earliest stages of development and, as a corollary to this, tumor immune evasion and outgrowth may be prevented (Tahseen and others, 2016, p. 3).

Furthermore, the animal experiment, using carcinogenesis protocol, was conducted to define three distinct and sequential steps of tumor genesis: 1) initiation due to inducing DMBA in regulatory genes, resulting in preneoplastic initiated cells; 2) promotion which is relevant to the outgrowth of initiated cells and requires a strong inciter provided by a tumor promoter; 3) progression as consequence of secondary mutations accumulating during promotion leading to stable transformation and the acquisition of metastatic properties. This study shows that a driver mutation connected with chemical carcinogeninduced tumors is immunogenic in nature at the earliest phases of cell transformation.

To conclude, it is necessary to take into consideration that critical driver mutations will concomitantly increase the potential of immunosurveillance against a broader spectrum of neoplasias. I agree that the results of this exploration support further researches in the development of epitope-focused and multiepitope-focused vaccination strategies that may be used to protect individuals at risk for potential mutant oncogenedriven cancers caused by exposure to environmental carcinogens. Not least important is early cancer diagnosis which is the guarantee of its successful treatment. The cancer issue is multifaceted and various medical specialists and representatives take part in its problem solution: biologists, geneticists, biochemists, pharmacologists, sociologists, psychologists, anthropologists and many others. The scientific and statistical data on various issues related to causes of morbidity and mortality from malignant tumors are of big importance now. Over the past ten years medicine has been enriched with new attainments and experience in the cancer treatment and the above mentioned results of the given article are palmary proofs of it. These results highlight the importance of setting appropriate criteria in choosing tumor-specific epitopes for effective preventative vaccines and, from my point of view, such contribution is a big step to prevent cancer and its dire consequences for human life.

References

Tahseen, H. N., Kyle, J., Rudemiller, J., Cochran B., Kyung, H. K., Tsuruta, Y., Fineberg, N. S., Mohammad. A., Craig, A. E., Timares, L. (2016). Immunoprevention of chemical carcinogenesis through early recognition of oncogene mutations. Retrieved from http://www.jimmunol.org/content/194/6/2683.full.pdf+html

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