de Jonghe et al. (2014) studied the effect of melatonin on the incidence of delirium among patients with hip fracture. The research was based on the concept that delirium characterises wake-sleep cycle disturbance. Also, melatonin rhythm changes influence circadian rhythm. The research was done in a multicentre, double-blind where 65 old patients scheduled for hip surgery were used. Instruments used were 3 mg of melatonin in the evening for five days. Incidences of delirium were evident within eight days of admission. The interpretation was that in hip fracture old patients, treatment with melatonin does not reduce delirium incidences (de Jonghe et al., 2014).
Ryan et al. (2015) on evidence-based review Non-Pharmacological interventions to prevent delirium based their argument on delirium development in patients is associated with prolonged stay, mortality and hospital costs. Further, it occurs across all inpatient settings. The methodology followed a review of several articles (17) on different abstracts. With a total of 28 different non-pharmacological interventions used in the clinical studies such as nutrition supplements and nursing education, it was evident that there are several negative consequences characterising delirium which include lengthy hospital stay, high treatment cost, and increased mortality (Ryan et al., 2015). Decreasing these stimulations decreases delirium.
According to Siddiqi (2016), there exist several factors for delirium cases such as infection, certain medication and dehydration thus addressing delirium should be based on tackling these factors. The study involved 39 trials that recruited 16,082 individuals. 22 various multi-component interventions were tested comparing with the usual care. The key finding was multi-components interventions prevents delirium in bot surgical and medical settings (Siddiqi, 2016).
Sharon et al. (1999) on the study A multicomponent intervention to prevent delirium in hospitalized older patients argued that hospitalized aged patients suffered from delirium which is associated with poor outcomes. The method involved studying 852 patients who were 70 years and above. Patients were both from intervention and normal unit. The research used standard protocols for managing factors such as sleep deprivation, immobility, visual and hearing impairment and dehydration. A key finding of the study was that the risk factors intervention strategy reduces delirium in hospitalized old patients (Sharon et al., 1999).
de Jonghe, A., van Munster, B. C., Goslings, J. C., Kloen, P., van Rees, C., Wolvius, R., ... & de Rooij, S. E. (2014). Effect of melatonin on incidence of delirium among patients with hip fracture: a multicentre, double-blind randomized controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 186(14), E547-E556.Inouye, S. K., Bogardus Jr, S. T., Charpentier, P. A., Leo-Summers, L., Acampora, D., Holford, T. R., & Cooney Jr, L. M. (1999). A multicomponent intervention to prevent delirium in hospitalized older patients. New England journal of medicine, 340(9), 669-676.Rivosecchi, R. M., Smithburger, P. L., Svec, S., Campbell, S., & Kane-Gill, S. L. (2015). Nonpharmacological interventions to prevent delirium: an evidence-based systematic review. Critical care nurse, 35(1), 39-49.Siddiqi, N., Harrison, J. K., Clegg, A., Teale, E. A., Young, J., Taylor, J., & Simpkins, S. A. (2016). Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised nonICU patients. The Cochrane Library.
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