Dry Tortugas National Park

2021-05-17 12:06:54
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Sea turtles have been labeled as threatened while leatherback species labeled to as endangered species. This report focused on looking at the sea turtles and lunar cycle. The first chapter focuses on the Dry Tortugas National Park giving into details ints geographic setting and species found there. The second chapter focuses on the history of Dry Tortugas National Park while the third chapter outlines the background of turtle protection through conservation goals national policies and international policies. The fourth chapter focuses on the causes of green and loggerhead turtles endangered species while the fifth chapter focuses on comparing data regarding turtle nesting rates over the last three years. The sixth chapter focuses on comparing of a nest to the lunar cycle and the seventh chapter focuses on physical challenges, emotional, and loss of minerals after drinking distilled water while the last chapter focuses on a recommendation.

Do sea turtles emerge during a full moon? And the shortest answer we get is they nest and emerge from nests during all moon phases. Higher nesting in olive ridleys and some loggerhead populations has been linked to the lunar stage, but for the most factors that affect nesting are not related to the moon, but new moon can affect hatchling orientation. Confusion events become more during these times (Frazer, 1983) because artificial light sources become a stronger attraction when there is no moonlight. Most ocean turtles need shorelines that are generally dim and have less human action keeping in mind the end goal to settle effectively.

Waterfront inhabitants in Sri Lanka who gather turtle eggs trust that there is an association with settling turtles and lunar cycles. Since, they have seen that more turtles home amid the full moon. Likewise in French Guiana leather-backs bury settling return dates are nearer to the full moon or the new moon. Reina (Pers. comm.) saw in Pacific Costa Rica there is no connection with turtle settling and the lunar cycle. The local individuals in the East Philippines guarantee that marine turtles will just home amid the new moon, the full moon and in the first and last quarter. Bresette broke down three-year information record of a 18-kilometer loggerhead nesting shoreline in Hutchinson Island, Florida. He discovered that;there is no recognizable connection between's the lunar cycle and settling. It was later discovered that the settling action of hawks-bill sea turtles at Milan Island, northern Great Barrier Reel Australia was essentially correlated with tidal tallness. Here, more turtles endeavored to home when the high tide happened before midnight than after 12 pm.

Loggerheads typically settle over the high tide line and the turtles developing at the high tide need to creep shorter separation than the turtles developing at low tide. At the point when a turtle slither a short separation it can spare vitality and the presented time to the predators for example, racoons, pigs and people will be shortened. At the point when the separation is expanded over the shoreline between the high and low tide levels, there is more prominent favorable position to develop at high tide time. For this the tidal stature furthermore the shoreline slant are imperative elements. More loggerhead turtles home at high tide than low tide in the Cape Canaveral shoreline in Fiorida and Cape Post shoreline in North Carolina, IJSA. Be that as it may, Davis and whiting (1977) found that there was no relationship with the tidal level and turtle rise at Cape Sable shoreline, Florida, USA.

The fundamental target of this study was to see if there is a correlation between the lunar cycle and the quantity of settling turtles. The other target was to discover the correlation of the tide level with the quantity of settling turtles.

DRY TORTUGAS NATIONAL PARK

This Park (DRTO) is situated at 24038' N latitude and 82052' W longitude, which is Encompassing seven islands and 260 square kilometers (100 mi.2) of ocean, Dry Tortugas National approximately 113 kilometers (70 mi.) west of Key West, Florida (Frazer 28) . The islands of DRTO include Hospital Key, Bush Key, Garden Key, Loggerhead Key, Long Key, East Key, and Middle Key (Figure 2). Because of its historic abundance of sea turtles, the area was first named Las Tortugas in 1513 by Spanish explorer Ponce de Leon. The name was later changed to the Dry Tortugas in order to warn mariners of the lack of fresh water on the islands.

Mariners, soldiers, and prisoners have made countless references to the great number of loggerhead and green sea turtles found within the Dry Tortugas. These turtles provided food for mariners in the region for hundreds of years. It has been documented that Ponce de Leon harvested 170 green turtles from these waters, provisioning boats to feed his crew (Gifford, 1934). With the construction of Fort Jefferson on Garden Key between 1846 and 1875, regular harvesting of sea turtles began by workers and soldiers stationed in the Dry Tortugas. A "turtle corral" was constructed in the fort's moat to keep turtles fresh for slaughter by the garrison commissary (Dawson & Williams, 1985). Turtle eggs were collected from nests on Loggerhead Key for use in foods such as puddings. According to Frazer (1983) records in the National Archives indicate that soldiers stationed at Fort Jefferson consumed over 39,588 pounds of turtle meat between 1858 and 1859.

During the 1800s, a market for sea turtle meat and eggs arose in Key West, developing into a full-scale fishery by the early 1900s. During the 1950s, the Dry Tortugas became the primary fishing area for the Key West-based pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) industry (Frazer, 1983). The mortality of the turtle populations within the Dry Tortugas increased further with the incidental catch of turtles in shrimp trawls. According to the 1990 National Research Council, accidental catch by shrimp trawlers results in more human-related deaths in ocean turtles than all other human exercises consolidated.

In 1908, the Dry Tortugas was designated as a bird preserve, the Dry Tortugas Keys Reservation, for the protection of the many pelagic and migratory species utilising the islands. In 1935, Fort Jefferson was announced a National Monumentby President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, falling under the care and jurisdiction of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior. With the establishment of Fort Jefferson as a National Monument, sea turtles and their nests became protected within monument boundaries. Robert Budlong, one of the first Monument Superintendents/Custodians stationed at the fort, referenced the sea turtle activity found on East and Hospital keys during the early 1940s, citing efforts to protect the turtle nests within Fort Jefferson National Monument from poaching. Enforcement was minimal, however, due to a lack of resources. Budlong estimated that very few sea turtle nests went unmolested (Budlong, 1943). In the year1992, Fort Jefferson National Monument was retitled to the name Dry Tortugas National Park , encompassing some 34 hectares (85 acres) of land and 260 square kilometers (100 square miles) of the ocean.

HISTORY OF DRY TORTUGAS

Dry Tortugas was discovered by Ponce de leon in 1513. Tortugas means turtle in Spanish. It was named after the huge populace of the sea turtles living in the islands surrounding waters. It is situated at 240 38 N latitude and 820 52 longitude which is surrounding seven islands and 260 sq kilometers (100mi.2) of the ocean. The name Tortugas was changed later to warn mariners of the absence of fresh water on the islands. Mariners, soldiers and prisoners have made many references to the great number of loggerhead and green sea turtles found within the Dry Tortugas for hundreds of years these turtles provided food for mariners in the region. According to documented report, Ponce de Leon harvested 170 green turtles from these waters provisioning boats to feed his team between 1846 and 1875 the construction of Fort Jefferson on Garden Key workers and soldiers stationed in the Dry Tortugas begun harvesting of sea turtles.

Garrison commissionary constructed a turtle corral in the forts moat to keep turtles fresh for slaughter. Eggs laid by turtles were collected from nests on Loggerhead Key for use in foods such as puddings. Soldiers stationed at Fort Jefferson ate over 39,588 pounds of meat from turtle between 1858 and 1859 and that is according to the records. In Key West market for sea turtle meat and eggs went up during the 1800s the Dry Tortugas became the chief fishing area for the Key West- based pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) industry. The death of the population of turtle in the Dry Tortugas increased further with the incidental catch of turtles in shrimp trawls this resulted in more human-associated deaths in sea turtles than all other human activities together. Dry Tortugas was designated as a bird preserve in 1908 the Keys reservation of Dry Tortugas for the protection of the many pelagic and migratory species using the islands. Fort Jefferson was declared a National Monument in 1935 by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt falling under the care and jurisdiction of the National Park Service, the interior department with this establishment sea turtles and their nests became protected...

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