Substance use disorders (SODs) are widespread problems that affect one in four children in the U.S. Children of parents who have the disorder experience both long-term and short-term effects. The effects impact on cognitive development and emotional, mental and physical health, spiritual and social adjustments and their economic well-being. SODs are defined as alcohol or drugs maladaptive patterns use that usually leads to functional impairment and significant distress. In addition, persistence use of the drugs or alcohol often results in severe consequences in a persons life. Furthermore, addition to the level of dependence is usually an acute disorder as compared to substance use.
Studies done in 2004 by National Survey on Drugs Use to establish the preference rate indicated that 22.5 million individuals aged 12 and older had dependence disorder on substances and alcohol. Furthermore, the survey revealed that a total of 15 million people depended on alcohol while 3.5 million individual depended on both illicit drug and alcohol. The data indicate that addiction to alcohol in the US is very high. Addiction is basically a physical illness that is progressive chronic and fatal.
Various models have been developed for etiology and treatment of drug and alcohol addiction. The first is the disease model. The model recognizes that physiological, genetic and environmental factors influence the development of drug usage. Overall drug usage interferes with the normal functioning process of the brain and creates the highness feeling. Additionally, as the usage continues the brain metabolism and activity are progressively affected to appoint that the changes cause the brain turn the abuse of drug and alcohol into a chronic relapsing illness. Moreover, the disease from the addiction is hardly recovered without treatment process. The treatment process involves a range of interventions that are selected to address the bio biophysical and social complexities of the disorder. Some of the designated responses include cognitive restructuring, social skills training, medical training, family therapy and group therapy.
Second is a cognitive behavioral model. The model views cognitions as the primary result of substances and alcohol use. Cognations include things like thoughts, understandings, feelings, and beliefs. According to the model, several interacting factors influence the development of the alcohol and substance abuse. They include the social environment response, genetic risk of an individual together with temperament influence and operant conditioning effect, that reward and maintain the use. Lastly is the family model. According to the model the addiction disorder affects the family and also is impacted by the family. The model suggests various homeostatic functions of family members that have significances in recovering process and dependence of alcohol and substance.
In addition, the alcohol addiction may also affect an infant. Pregnant mothers usually risk their unborn babys life through abuse inadequate social support. Moreover, they can cause the children to develop a disorder termed as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). The disease is associated with increased hyperactivity, lower IQ, drug addiction, attention deficit disorder, behavioral problem, social maladjustment, depression, low self-esteem and poor social support.
There are various way children together with families of drug addicts can be helped. Then first one is through universal prevention programs. The programs are generally delivered in schools. The usually provide values clarification, education on addiction and build skills of the childrens. Other programs that address the issue include programs such as selective prevention programs delivered in churches schools and communities. The programs offer help to children that are identified to be from the families of drug and alcohol addicts. Furthermore, social workers can also help these childrens through recommending the appropriate interventions the family can take to help the alcohol addict. Additionally, the workers can also enlighten the children about the drug addiction disorders
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