The Essence of Flow Cytometry for Patients with Acute Leukemia

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The article intends to outline the essence of flow cytometry (FCM) in morpho-cytochemical when conducting assessments in patients diagnosed with acute leukemia. The study used 100 patients who had given their informed consent to be part of the sample data. The patients had acute leukemia and did not have any prior treatment with steroids or even any form of chemotherapy. The study indicates that both morphology, as well as cytochemistry, should be applied to all patient diagnosed with acute leukemia during the initial assessment stage. However, using morpho-cytochemistry without necessarily using the flow cytometry (FCM) provides the specific diagnosis for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but fails to give the specific diagnosis for those patients with T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

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Patients with noncommittal morphology as well as probable T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) mostly on the adult population should have the flow cytometry (FCM) with minimal antibody panel to characterize as well as classify acute leukemia into therapeutically related subgroups. Flow cytometry (FCM) proved to be crucial in T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) since it is used to determine a definite as well as a probable diagnosis to determine both therapeutically as well as prognostically groups. Additionally, flow cytometry (FCM) cab be used is determining acute myeloid leukemia cases to establish the different subgroups.

Research Hypotheses

The article strives to assess the importance of the using the flow cytometry (FCM) in giving more precise and accurate morpho-cytochemical assessments in patients diagnosed with acute leukemia. The article has selected 100 random patients both adults and children to test this hypothesis. The study focused on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to determine the impact of the flow cytometry (FCM) to morpho-cytochemical assessments in acute leukemia patients. The data gathered was the best fit for this study since it entailed all the acute leukemia patients who went for clinics at the Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, all India Institute of Medical Sciences and the New Delhi, India.

Experimental Design

The study selected 100 patients from all the acute leukemia patients who attended the lymphoma leukemia clinics at the Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, who had been screened between June 2005 and July 2006.The sample data gathered entailed 64 male and 36 female patients with the median age being 18 years the range being between 2 years and 60 years. Moreover, 26 of the patients were below 14 years of age. The data used was collected in a list-mode as well as analyzed using FLOW JO software while the sample was tested using a flow cytometer.

Ethical Consideration and issues

The issue of using selected patients as a sample size of a larger population may be controversial especially if the ailments they are suffering are terminal for instance Cancer. Patients may face stigma from those around them. In the case study above whereby a sample of 100 acute leukemia patients is used to determine the essence of flow cytometry considered the ethical part of the research. The patients who were used in the study included both adults and children and at the time, they were included most of their personal information was collected, for instance, their history, physical examination as well as socioeconomic details. However, all the 100 patients who were participating in the study had a given their informed consent before the study was conducted. Hence, the study observed the ethical concerns.

Data Presentation

The article has used both tables and figures to express clearly the concerns of the study. The tables give a clear representation of the sample that was used in the study indicating how the data was broken down by the study. On the other hand, the figures were used to give a visual explanation of the processes involved in the study indicating the final results.

Data Analysis

The collected data during the study was analyzed using mathematical formulas and software as well as comparative analysis. Blast count correlation was used to determine the different relationships between the variable used, for instance, morphology, FSC/SSC and the CD45/SSC. The study strived to determine how morphological as well as cytochemical variables correlated with the FACS bases identification method of blasts. The study was also evaluated morphology-cytochemistry categorizations, their relations with diagnosis by quantitative Flow cytometry (FCM) and the essence of the quantitative flow cytometry based immune-phenotyping of the blast determined by the CD45/side scatter features.


The articles suggested that both morphology and the cytochemistry should be used in the initial stages of assessing acute leukemia in all patients. Morpho-cytochemistry can be used to determine the specific diagnosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) without using the flow cytometry. However, it fails to give the definite diagnosis of T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) without the flow cytometry. The essence of flow cytometry (FCM) in T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients is to determine either a definite or a probable diagnosis. The major use of the flow cytometry in the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is to determine the different subgroups. Last but not least the study suggests that it would be better to use the flow cytometry (FCM) in all the cases since is assisted in the identification of BAL as well as aberrant antigen co-expression.

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