According to Barston, Diplomacy is a critical area as far as selling and building essential ties between nations. It refers to a country's representatives selling ideas, ideologies and expectations in the international arena using negotiations. Diplomacy serves two primary purposes the first one is political objectives and the second being nonpolitical objectives. To be successful in a diplomatic process, the three important primary means that will determine the success are persuasion, threat to use force and compromise. Tactics and means are essential and if used in tandem can lead to significant success during negotiations. Diplomacy serves different functions including representation of a state, ceremonial functions, reporting, negotiation and protection of the interest of a given state (Carlson 43). In this essay, the focus will be on negotiation between different countries during a global summit on the issue of immigration and security threat with the aim of achieving a win-win outcome. While arguing about the issue, the focus will be on the necessary negotiation skills that are essential to achieving the desired results.
Overview of the issue of immigration and security
The world has fast grown into a global village. The once distant countries and cities are now open and nearer to almost all the world's population. The improved transport networks such as electric trains, airplanes, and better road networks have made it easier for people to move from one location to another (Anderson 23). For the said reason, more and more people are relocating from their home countries to other nations. People relocate to new lands for different reasons including vacations, business ventures, studying, employment opportunities, better living conditions and others are forced to move due to political instabilities and natural calamities. As people move across borders, the host countries are faced with the possibility of increased security threats as some immigrants do not come with the genuine intention (Ruggiero 6). Most people would take advantage therefore of the situation and use the immigration privilege to enter a country to harm an individual or a group of people and for that reason, no country is safe from security threats. As a representative of a country, therefore, it is necessary for the participating states to negotiate on the possible policies and measures that can be put in place to ensure that neither the home country nor the host country suffers while trying to ensure security is not breached whatsoever. In most cases countries can negotiate to make sure that if the host country can accommodate citizens from a home country, then there must be steps and protocols to be followed. However at times, the countries may disagree as one country may want more than can be offered or a country may not be willing to settle for the offers given. In this case, the negotiations will be between the United States of America and Kenya and I will be representing Kenya as it seeks to persuade America to create policies that will allow more Kenyans to move to America to work, study, live and visit.
The situation between Kenya and U.S
The United States is known for its democratic culture that creates a sound atmosphere for many people to be successful. More and more people from other countries dream to live and work in America because of the vast opportunities that the country can offer. America has a rich culture that can accommodate many people from other parts of the world because of the political, economic and social way of life that ensures everyone gets equal opportunities in life whether it is through working, art, sports or business. This means that more and more people will want to enter the country to make a life for them. On the other hand, Kenya being a third world country is faced with challenges ranging from the corruption that denies equal opportunities, lack of jobs, inadequate education systems, ineffective business atmosphere and much more. Therefore, more and more Kenyans seek to move abroad in search of better opportunities to make their lives better. America has one of the most strict migration policies that scrutinizes and blocks many unqualified immigrants from entering the country. The Kenyan government seeks to get into an agreement with the United States to ensure that some of its citizens are allowed to enter the country for studies, business, vacation, and visitation. The negotiation between the American government and the Kenyan government was an open diplomacy. A public diplomacy is one that is open to the public who are made aware of what is going on because it affects them (Sharp & Geoffrey 77). Eventually, the outcome of the negotiations will be held public so that the citizens that wish to visit America can follow the given guidelines.
Essential Skills during negotiations
As the Kenyan ambassador to the United States, ensuring that more Kenyans are not blocked to enter the United States due to the strict immigration policies that aim to fight security threats is my objective. Therefore, during the negotiations, one critical skill I used was attentive listening (Bayne & Stephen 16). During the negotiation process, it is necessary for each party to be keen not only to what is being said but how it is being presented. Attentive listening is significant during negotiations because it allowed me to understand what the United States government wanted from the Kenyan government to ensure more Kenyans travel to America. At the same time, listening prepared me to plan my next strategy and how to respond effectively to the U.S demands and suggestions. Through attentive listening, I was able to understand that The American government was not going to negotiate or compromise when it comes to the security of its citizens and land.
As the Kenyan representative I presented my case genuinely with facts and statistics such as the number of death rates due to diseases and lack of food, it was necessary that I maintained an emotional balance. According to Sreenivasan (18), emotional balance is crucial to avoid influencing a person's decision and thinking. Most people can create an emotional atmosphere to create weakness which can later affect the decision that would change the whole country. Therefore as much as I spoke of a sensitive matter, I ensured that I maintained my balance not to affect my judgment.
As much as the United States is far superior to Kenya, I entered the negotiations with politeness and respect for the American culture and government. Being superior does not mean that at some point the United States may not need the Kenyan government. Being polite and respectful was significant to ensure that each party felt necessary during negotiations (Steiner 31). The elegant atmosphere provided that there was a conducive environment for honest discussion with each party having the freedom to put on the table what they want. The Kenyan government through my representation as the ambassador argued that Kenyans are hardworking people that would help to improve the American economy. I also explained that since the country is still a third world country, there are challenges it's facing that makes it difficult to satisfy the needs of every citizen regarding jobs, quality education, and provision. On the other hand, the U.S representative argued that it is corruption that makes it impossible for Kenya to accommodate all its citizens and satisfy their needs. Furthermore, he also pointed out that the corruption level is the same reason the American government is reluctant to allow Kenyans into the country. The fear of the vice to spread in America makes the issue of insecurity real because it is through corruption that aliens from other nearby countries such as Somalia get fake identity cards that they use to acquire passports that they later use to claim visas to travel to the United States where they carry out their security threat activities such as terrorist acts.
The Argument and Decision
LeMay emphasizes that after the 9/11 terrorist attack that led to the death of many Americans and the destruction of property, the American government has put in measures to ensure that such an unfortunate event does not happen again. The country does not condemn any person from entering the lands but is keen to make sure that whoever does so is doing it without ill intentions. It is always dangerous when diplomacy breaks down and may lead to war or major crisis and, therefore, it is significant that both parties are satisfied with the outcome. There are several ways that a country can use to get the desired results during negotiations including, use of force, rewards, persuasion, promise of rewards and concessions and non-violent punishment. Kenya is a third world country that cannot use force to ensure that America agrees to accommodate the Kenyan citizens who wish to work, visit and live in America. However, the country can use persuasion and promising rewards. America has everything that Kenya would offer and more, therefore, to make America create conducive policies to accommodate more Kenyans which would mean better foreign exchange and improve the economy in general; I used both the persuasion and reward promising ways. As the Kenyan ambassador to America, I promised the American government that they will be allowed to have sufficient land to set their army base in Kenya, which will also help in fighting terrorism in America. The proposal was met positively by the American government since as a superpower, they need as many different army bases in various parts of the world to monitor the security issue. By offering a base for U.S military, it meant that America was closer to one of the countries that are believed to produce members of the terrorist groups called the Al-shabaab. Other than the terrorist groups, Somalia is also known for the pirates who notoriously make the water bodies around it unbearable through its pirates (Bahadur 42).
As the Kenyan representative, I also used persuasion when I proposed that it is important for more Kenyans to work and study in America because the American education system produces top students who are qualified and can work anywhere in the world. Other than for economic purposes, having more Kenyans working and studying in America would put Kenya on the world map and, therefore, attract more investors. As a counter to my proposals, the American government through its representative embraced the offer for an army base in Kenya but demanded that there should be more than one army bases and suggested for three stations in three different parts of the country. Furthermore, the representative embraced the idea of more keenly interviewed Kenyan studying and working in America as a way of improving both countries through excellent representation in education and employment area. Several Kenyans have gone to America made a real name for both countries, for example, Lupita Nyongo, who won an Oscar. By winning she sent a message that America gives opportunities to anyone regardless of which country you come from and put Kenya on the world map as a country full of talent. At the end of the discussion, the conclusion was that the America government will allow more Kenyans to study, work and live in America only if they are qualified regarding past records and after thorough interviews. The America government also offered to sponsor some Kenyan students through scholarships. All the conditions were given in exchange for several American army bases to be located in Kenya and eventual improvement of the image of America.
In conclusion, the negotiation achieved was successful as both countries gained. America was able to find new army bases which are essential for its operations in Africa, specifically East...
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