The outer or extended circle has the earlier phases of English in different settings, where the language has become part of a country's main institutions and plays an important 'second language' role in a multilingual environment. The varieties used here are norm-developing in regions using these types there has been a conflict between linguistic norm and linguistic behavior. Such varieties are both endow- and exonerative.
The expanding circle involves nations that recognize the significance of English as a Global Language. Over the years, they do not belong to that group of countries that were colonized by members of the inner circle, and English doesn't have any special international status. They comprise the context in which English is taught as a 'foreign' language as the most useful vehicle for international communication. These are 'norm-dependent' varieties and are essentially exonerative.
Americans speak better English since they talk without any real exaggerations or accents unlike the British.
The spread of English in the Expanding Circle is a result of foreign language learning in the country. Outer Circle has a broad range of proficiency in the language among the population, with some having native-like fluency and others having only minimal familiarity with English. However, in the Expanding Circle, unlike the Outer Circle, there is no local model of English since the language does not have official status.Code-switching is regarded as a communicative phenomenon of constantly switching between two languages in a bilingual's speech. Here it is used to build the intimate personal relationship between the teacher and the student since they share the same ethno cultural identity. It helps the student to start from the known to the unknown.
In other cases, it helps us to, convey a thought, getting something done to ingratiate ourselves with others and saying things secretly.
The future of English
Currently, every continent has a substantial group of English speakers, and English has gained increasing importance as a lingua franca, a language used by people who do not share the same mother tongue. English has global role in science, commerce, politics, finance, tourism, sport, and even screen entertainment and popular music. International English might grow to become World speak, as a single global lingua-franca might be called, available as a universal auxiliary (or indeed primary) language to every educated adult. Or it might retreat as other powers advance, losing its global users and status until it is confined to the lands where it is still spoken as a mother tongue. A third, intermediate, option would see English retained as a world language, but developing on a separate standard from that used by native speakers.
Factors that will contribute to future English include social value shifts, its use in international economy, used in global culture and the need for scenario building.
Language and identity
Language and identity are conceptualized differently in the social-cultural perspective of the human action. Personality is viewed as socially constituted and dynamic product of social, political and historical context of an individual. One first language is one's identity.
Language and identity are connected in that it can disclose nationality, culture, religion gender and socioeconomic class. Nationality can be shown through accent like American, British Scottish and words that people use. Americas say sidewalk while British use pavement. One's culture can also reveal identity due to grammar and pronunciation. Language can also show one's age. Words used by teenagers differ from those of older generation.
Role of Language in a Person's Identity
Language constitutes maker of a larger social category. Indeed linguistic diversity is perceived as a threat to national unity. (Windiest, 2004). Languages may be invoked and used to signal group membership especially if groups feel that their identities are threatened; in these situations, use of a given language may constitute an act of defiance.
Indeed, linguistic diversity is frequently perceived as a threat to national unity (Windiest, 2004). Languages may be invoked and used to signal group membership especially if groups feel that their identities are threatened; in these situations, use of a given language may constitute an act of defiance.
Linguistic group mobility social mobility
The negative evaluation of one's language or identity might result in the desire for social mobility, which in the present context might entail the acquisition or use of a language that symbolizes a more positive identity. Language and identity greatly depend on nature of identity. It depends on collective identity extending to countries and ethnic communities. It also depends on sources of identity that is traits and experiences such as race.
Biases in informant selection
First, traditionally, informants selected were the older rural male who was not mobile. Sociolinguists rejected this bias and rejected. The rejection consisted of urban rather than choosing rural and younger informants. Many studies included informants of both sexes though some researchers confined their studies to male speakers.
All minority groups were under scrutiny though gender was not perceived important because men were considered as the heart of society with women invisible. All important positions were held by men following the Second World War.
Also, there was deficit approach that claimed to establish women's language characterized by exaggerated intonation and empty adjectives. It was challenged because women should learn to speak like men to be taken seriously. Women are seen as the oppressed group and that there are linguistic differences in gender speech regarding men dominance and women subordination. Researchers show that male dominance is enacted through linguistic practices.
The discovery of different male and female subcultures has led to resistance of women to being treated as subordinates. Womens talk was examined outside a framework of oppression and powerlessness. In the large part of political activism of women's movement, women have achieved the legal rights to be treated as equals of men. This has led to changes in attitudes in the workplace and home.
If you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have it published on the SuperbGrade website, please click below to request its removal: