HIV is a virus that mainly attacks the immune system of an individual. It then weakens the ability of the body to fight infections and diseases. HIV can be transmitted through the following ways; engaging in unprotected sex, sharing HIV infected needles, and other sharp objects. It can also be transmitted from mother to child through breast feeding. The body fluids of an infected person are the carriers of HIV. These fluids are mainly blood, semen, vaginal fluids, breast milk as well as anal fluids. The final stage of HIV is known as AIDS. The nationwide cases in United States concerning the new HIV infections are reducing but in south Florida, there has been an increasing rate of HIV infections (Diana, Mary & Lorrene, 2015). According to state federal data of 2014, Miami-Dade together with Broward were leading first and second in United States as far as HIV infections is concerned. According to Armstrong (national medical officer), Florida spends a record 34 million dollars on the HIV and AIDS prevention (Diana, Mary & Lorrene, 2015). This has prompted an effort to device a new method and strategy of controlling and preventing the spread of HIV infections.
A lifecycle approach to HIV prevention in African women and children.
Effective ways which constitute the biomedical and structural approach of HIV prevention are implemented mostly in the sub-Saharan regions of Africa (Alison & Jennifer, 2014). An approach which recognizes the interconnection between the adolescent, health of women and children and still recognizes the interventions that are helpful across these groups. This approach is known as lifecycle approach. They focus on new biomedical strategies for preventing women, children and adolescents from contraction and spreading HIV.
There are structural approaches of prevention of spread of HIV and new ways of eliminating HIV infections among infants and children. The strategies for the success of lifecycle approach are as follows (Alison & Jennifer, 2014);
Promoting high level of responsibility among the adolescents through education and HIV prevention strategies so that there is reduced risk of early pregnancy as well as HIV infections.
There is also early childhood strategies like better exclusive breast feeding which contributes to better health in both child and adolescent life (Alison & Jennifer, 2014).
The B+ biomedical prevention for the HIV among the infants has a better health impact being that the prevention is done through the mother. This has proved effective as compared to the infant HIV prevention in isolation.
Randomized controlled medical trials have favored the use of new antiretroviral prevention strategy among sexually active females. The HPTN 052 controlled trial which was randomized proved that between discordant couples who are heterosexual, the use of antiretroviral therapy treatment for one partner reduced the risk of HIV contraction between the couple by 96%, even though the risk of acquiring HIV remained risky in case they engage in sex outside their relationship.
Male circumcision is also an effective way of preventing HIV for adults and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Demand for circumcision services are high mostly among young men and boys. For example, in Kenya, the demand has brought about a minimum age which one is required to be circumcised. African women are most afflicted to HIV, thus efforts geared towards HIV prevention which concentrates on women are fundamental in decreasing HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. More so health of women has a great impact on household as well as child health (Thomas, Annabelle & Pierre, 2015). Investment in lifecycle intervention approach could push the fight against HIV in south Florida beyond epidemic (Diana, Mary & Lorrene, 2015).
Missed HIV test among persons of high risk during consultations by general practitioners
This was a study based on observation which was carried out through the help of general practitioners in the Netherlands. An earlier study did revealed that most general practitioners in Netherlands failed to carry out a test on HIV and those who have not been diagnosed are high in number (Van den Brock & Joure, 2014). The aim of the study was to investigate further the frequency and more so the motives for (not) participating in HIV test and the contribution that the general practitioners bring as far as HIV infection is concerned in Netherlands. The setting was a 42-45 sentinel care network in Netherlands primarily made. Record data related to sexually transmitted infections were consistently collected between the years 2008-2013. The results indicated that, before, 40% of HIV test were reported among sexually transmitted related consultations. It also revealed that among the 40%, 26% of the consultations had undergone an HIV test in their previous consultations (Van den Brock & Joure, 2014).
An estimated total of 25000 people in Netherlands are infected with HIV, of whom 25%-34% are not diagnosed (Brock, 2016). In the year 2013, an average number of 1100 HIV patients visited the specialized HIV care it came out that 43% of them were late for care. Early treatment and care for HIV is mandatory in the Netherlands as part of an integrated approach focused on early treatment. This immediately impacts on reduced transmission and a further improved public as well as individual health (Thomas, Annabelle & Pierre, 2015). The general practitioners who are the gatekeepers in the Dutch medical care acts as an essential entrance point to the care with sexually transmitted infections diagnosis inclusive. 99% of population in Netherlands is registered with a general exercise. Furthermore, a good number of the population (75%), contacts the care for not less than once per year. The providers of sexually transmitted infections treatment are mainly the general practitioners and sexually transmitted clinics. The reasons for not testing were found to be that 40% of the patients were not exposed to any risk of HIV infection or the time of exposure to the risk was very resent (37%). It also revealed 14% hesitated and another 6% of the patients totally refused the test (Van den Brock & Joure, 2014). The concept of general practitioners could be adopted amongst the nurses in south Florida to help in diagnosing more than a third of new cases of HIV infections (Diana, Mary & Lorrene, 2015).
Community based economic upgrade program in Ontario.
The investment in prevention of HIV among communities around Ontario in the last twenty years are said to be a significant change concerning the HIV prevalence. However, this result has not been evaluated systematically. A mini-level investment study was conducted across Ontario to help close the knowledge gap. The results indicated that between the year 1987 and 2011, community based program which was conducted province wide aided the prevention of almost 16,670 persons from HIV contagions. This helped the health care department in Ontario to save an approximate of 65 billion dollars (Thomas, Annabelle & Pierre, 2015). The result further showed that the initiative of HIV prevention program in the community also helped in saving the cost. Every dollar that was invested in this program from the year 2005 to 2011 saved about 5 Canadian dollars (Stephanie, David & Sean, 2015).
The economic burden brought about by HIV infection is substantial. In the past two decades, behavioral prevention strategies in conjunction with community-based programs have been a pillar in preventing infections related to HIV and infections across Canada. An important body has confirmed that there is enough evidence to show that initiatives based in communities and behavioral intrusions are important in dropping irresponsible sexual behavior together with cases of sexually spread infections mostly in highly vulnerable populations (Omar, Elwin & Scott, 2016). The reduction is ensured through campaigns to increase condom use and also pumping more knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention. There is also an effort to improve retention to care and HIV treatment and further improved tolerance to therapy of antiretroviral. Since HIV epidemic broke, there has been a heavy reliance on province-wide, HIV organizations based on communities by the Ontarios health practitioners. The organizations which are based in the communities helps to offer preclusion programs by educating the communities as well as populations who are vulnerable and develop healthy associations with the people.
The province has embarked on strategies which takes into account the values and human moralities, stigma not forgetting the social, structural together with behavioral issues that affects the danger of HIV. Even though it has been hard to understand the connection between the investment and HIV control, it is important for health planners to understand it (Thomas, Annabelle & Pierre, 2015). This is because investment is the basic pathway that connects the reductions in HIV infections. Devising a cost friendly HIV prevention mechanisms for the coming generation could assist prevention of new cases of HIV and cut the cost. The economic strategy has worked well in Ontario and could be replicated to south Florida to help curb HIV epidemic (Diana, Mary & Lorrene, 2015). In future the government of the United States should provide clear statistics on individual level economical evidence since it could help the state officials during planning on how to make the most out of it
How individual migration origin impacts HIV transmission in Paris
The research was aimed at assessing the impact of migration of residents from country and place of origin on personal behavior concerning sex. This is because there is scares study about relations between migration and HIV transmission in Paris. The main aim of the research was to investigate whether and to what extent individual attitudes and behavior on HIV preclusion differ in connection to country or place of origin in Paris. The study was conducted among 3006 persons who were questioned within Paris in the year 2010. There were two outcome variables where there was intention by oneself to safeguard himself from HIV and the embracing of use of condom as a means of protection against contracting HIV infection. There were several factors that affected the outcome and thus a multivariate logistic regression model was developed. Demographic variables were first taken into account plus country of originality. Other variables like the socioeconomic factors which are directly connected to sexual behavior perception of HIV were later added (Linda, Chris & Thomas, 2015).
According to Thomas, Annabelle and Pierre (2015), natives as well as foreign occupants who had originated from sub-Saharan Africa showed added zeal to safeguard themselves compared to natives with original French parents. In a twist, overseas women together with French women from North Africa showed minimal intentions of safeguard compared to native women who had parents from France. These findings showed the significance of putting origin and culture of the population to account once modelling communication, data and education about HIV infections. The result also pulled focus on portions of the people that could stay away from prevention initiatives. The social and cultural diversities as well as legal documentation is largely affecting south Florida and thus the study of origin and originality should be carried out by the nurses so that they can identify the each and every population and conduct them in a way that is accepted to them so that HIV cases among them could be analyzed and dealt with as recommended.
Extending the HIV prevention...
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