Medical Essay on Cellular Pathology

2021-06-17 17:02:35
7 pages
1897 words
Vanderbilt University
Type of paper: 
Case study
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Diagnosis is primal since it helps the medics to know exactly the type of disease that they are treating and how exactly to take care of it. Right diagnosis is important since it shows that the doctors experience in his work as it ensures that wrong medication is not administered to the patient. At times, problems arise during diagnosis. They include false positives and false negatives. On the other hand, a wrong diagnosis can lead to serious problems which sometimes are fatal to the patients. Some doctors have lost their licenses due to misdiagnoses. The aim of this paper is to write a report of a diagnosis done by a doctor for a 65-year-old male patient who has a history of prostate cancer treatment and has some complications in other parts of the body that have been checked thoroughly by the medical staff. This report is meant to help the doctors treating him and those who will treat him in the future to get the information about the history of the sickness of the patient. Many are the cases where the patients history has implications on the current health status of a patient when he/she is reported to be ill. A lot of information encompassed in the medical history of the patient has a significant impact on the patient as far as his/her health condition is concerned. For any diagnosis, tests on the patient are paramount; this takes into consideration immunohistochemistry and histology techniques which aim at finding out the real problem within the patients system (Pastuszak et al. 2015).

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Immunohistochemistrys general application is useful in the monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies application in the determination of antigen of interest distribution in disease and health. The information acquired from immunohistochemistry is always important for surgical pathologists; after identification of the tumor, it is easy to conduct surgery on the patient. Immunohistochemistry has been used extensively for the diagnosis of cancers; antigens of specific tumors have been observed to be expressed de novo or in some instances up-regulated in certain carcinogenic infections. Ultimately, the aim of immunohistochemistry is the performance of immunohistochemistry staining on the organism taking into consideration to cause little or no damage to the tissue or cell. Consequently, usage of less amount of the antibody aims at finding a way in the tumor typing and tumor markers; therefore, it is important to note that immunohistochemistry is useful in the diagnosis of diseases, development of drugs, and biological research. All these steps are functional as far as any carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic infection is concerned.

The usage of specific tumor markers helps physicians to be able to diagnose cancer as either benign, pre-malignant, or malignant via immunohistochemistry; also in the determination of the stage and the grade of a definite tumor, and identification of the type of cell and metastasis origin to help find the primary tumor site. Metastasis is the process by which a tumor spreads throughout the body of an organism predominantly from their primary site to locations that are distant in the body. Studies show that malignant tumors multiply and spread (metastasize) at a faster rate than benign tumors. For determination of whether a tumor is malignant, benign or pre-malignant, a sample from a viewed under a microscope by a pathologist; this specimen is referred to as a biopsy. There are three types of biopsies incisional (core) biopsy, excisional biopsy, and needle aspirational biopsy. By definition, incisional biopsy entails a sample removed surgically from the tumor; excisional biopsy involves surgical removal of the whole area that is suspected to be affected by the tumor; lastly, needle aspirational biopsy utilizes a fluid from the infected tissue which is extracted by a needle.

Medical History of the Patient

Five years ago, the patient got diagnosed with prostate cancer whose treatment was administered accordingly. Three years later, he underwent a negative fecal occult blood test. The stage of the cancer though not noted, it was very essential. He was then told to visit the local hospital for further medical assistance. The patient history noted by a gastroenterologist excluded the issue with the blood in the stool indicating no problem with the alimentary canal. Issues to do with the digestive system of the body are pertinent as the digestive system is a key determinant in the physiological response of a human being. Anything that comes on the way to halt the digestion process a poses high risk to the individual involved. In cases where someone starts having an awkward feeling about their medical condition, then the person is ultimately required to report the situation to a medical practitioner for help. Nowadays people presume every small infection or complication is better dealt with over-the-counter drugs; this is very wrong and is strongly uncalled.

Current Medical Diagnosis

The patient approached his general practitioner complaining of changes in the behavior of his bowels and episodes of bleeding from his rectum. The patient approached a gastroenterologist who studied and then recorded his history. The test for blood in the stool was found to be negative indicating that his alimentary canal was healthy. Diagnoses on the patient with abnormalities were negative. A rectal examination was also done and found to be remarkable. At this point there was no problem with his alimentary canal; the abdomen and the rectum were all healthy with no medical issues. The digestive system requires a continuous flow of physiological substances for proper functioning of the body; and sustenance of the body mechanisms.

There was an urge for more tests since the client was still sick and the need to establish the ailment was paramount to be recognized at all costs. The extra tests were done by the general practitioner so as to ascertain the real problem that the patient was suffering. Further tests involved diagnosing the chest, abdomen, and the pelvis (Ong and Schofield 2016). A CT scan of the pelvis, chest, and abdomen was carried out which confirmed that the patient was had a recto-sigmoid tumor mass (Pereira et al 2015). The patient also had an uncharacterized small nodule in the liver which showed that the liver might be suffering from cancer, but more tests were required to confirm that. The liver is a primal organ in the body as it helps in instances where there is complete utilization of glucose, thereby requiring breakdown of glycogen to generate the fuel to sustain the body. The body may many times have tumors, but not all tumors are malignant (Culling, Allison, and Barr 2014). Malignant tumors are tumors which are presumed cancerous; on the other hand, benign tumors are pre-cancerous.

The lungs of the patient did not show evidence of suspicious lesions which was a good sign meaning the lungs of the patient were in good shape. The presence of the tumor predestined that it was to be removed and then assessed for malignancy (Majumdar 2012). Consequently, the patient was scheduled for surgery to have the tumor removed. Assessments carried out were aimed at testing for other parameters that could be a hindrance to his surgery, the absence of all the dangers was a proper indication that the patient was ready enough to undergo surgery. After surgery, there was removal of the tumor. At the laboratory, there was a histopathology analysis of the tumor; the aim of this was determination of any microbial infection that was in the body of the patient (Karantza 2011). The diagnosis involved the use of special stains (HE and special stains). Staining is a laboratory procedure that utilizes certain stains working on the specimens for detection of any microorganisms from the body on an infected part. Staining functions in such a manner that when there is no microorganism present in the specimen, the color-change of the stain will be different from that expected when there is the presence of a pathogen. The diagnosis revealed the presence of a tumor that was malignant in nature which was of adenocarcinoma histological type. The results of the diagnosis meant that the patient had cancer in the liver hence he needed quick medical attention to remove the tumor (Moll, et al. 2008).

The general practitioner also conducted a histological diagnosis on the lymph nodes in the body of the patient. The two locally draining of the pericolic nodes and two of the fifteen lymph nodes that are distant were found to have cancerous cells which called for urgent treatment (Hasteh, Lin, Weidner, and Michael 2010). The PET scan of the liver showed that the lesion found was hot. Taking a liver biopsy (hepatoma) was necessary for assessment for immunohistochemistry and morphology due to the fact that it would later be required in surgery. Histology tests done on the available samples from the patient confirmed that a malignant tissue was present and was positive for anti K-20 and negative for anti-K7 and anti-PSA (Gray and Kocjan 2010). It was then concluded to be a case of colorectal adenocarcinoma which arose from the recto-sigmoid area of the large intestines. Adenocarcinoma refers to the cancer of the glands. The cancer stage presumed at T3N1M1 meant that the carcinogenic infection extent on the patient had been determined (Ocque, Tochigi, Ohori, and Dacic 2011). This case revealed the use of the diagnostic, prognostic, and validated biomarker proteins. In the lineage of cells, antibodies that are against keratins are used as biomarkers (Bancroft and Gamble 2008).

The images below were obtained after running various tests on the patient

CT scan of the Chest abdomen

CT scan of the Pelvis

PET scan of the liver

PET scan of the liver

PET scan of the liver after removal of the tumor


Good diagnosis reveals lots of useful information that can be used to help a patient from a precarious situation. The diagnosis may also help the practitioners to understand the trends in diseases, therefore, helping them to understand more about the infection and its prognosis. Patients also need to be conversant about their health conditions; whenever one starts experiencing an unusual activity in the body mechanism, he/she should seek medical attention lest he/she wants to risk his/her life. Prevention is better than cure; dealing with conditions at preliminary stages is way easier other than in cases where the conditions are at the window periods.

Practical Portfolio Reflective Statement

Reflective practice involves learning from ones experience as he/she works in the practice he/she is engaged in during most of the times. This paper focuses on relating the cells and tissues with regards to disease infection and diseases in the pathological context. The paper also involves enhancement of the development of several learning skills to improve self-care practice. Another important issue highlighted in this report is exploring the experience with a practical. The reflective statement also involves naming the challenges and then coming up with strategies on how to overcome them. It also provides an explanation on how to improve the field of cellular pathology. Experience is the best teacher, learning about how people certain things are handled before the situation comes up in the future is essential as it helps to alleviate the risks that would otherwise be encountered suppose the action took place without the knowledge of the victim.

Reflective statement

The experience teaches that a patients history is important during the diagnosis of the patient. Some of the diseases suffered by the victim, then later got healed, might relapse causing problems to the patients. Through practice, there is understanding of the relationship between the cell, the tissues, and...

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