During exercise, the heart rate increases rapidly in response to the intensity of the exercise. If the rate of work is well controlled and measured for instance in the cycle ergometer, the uptake of oxygen can easily be predicted. In this way, expression of the work rate or intensity of the exercise concerning the oxygen uptake is not appropriate for the comparison of different people or individuals under different circumstances since other factors affect the heart rate such as the health status and the age of an individual (McArdle et al., 2010).Ill health people, for example, will have a faster heart rate as compared to the healthyindividuals. Also, young children have a more rapid heart rate as compared to the senior citizens since their metabolic rate is faster due to the high rate of cell division hence more energy is required.
The heart rate increases steadily in response to the intensity of the exercise until a point is reached where the heart starts to level off especially during the Olympic cross country skiing. It is, therefore, an indicator that the individual is approaching its maximum value. The highest heart rate is thus the highest rate of heartbeat that is attainable in all-out effort to the exhaustion points. Hence, it is the value is reliable that remains unchanged from day to day and slightly changes from year to year.
The maximum heart rate can be made based on the age since maximum heart rate indicates a slight decrease in the heart rate per year starting from age ten to fifteen.
The average heart rate can be obtained by subtracting the age of an individual from 220 though is only for estimation purposes since the values of individuals vary considerably from the average values (Saltin, 2000). For instance in illustrating the average heart rate of a forty years old persons, forty is subtracted from 220 hence obtaining one hundred and eighty as the mean heart rate per minute ( HR max=220-40). The study indicates that 68% of the individuals will attain the heart rate between 168 and 192 beats per minute while 95% will have a heart rate between 156 and 204 per minute. The knowledge of the maximum heart rate is useful in estimating the targeted heart rate. Thus, the targeted heart rate enables the individuals to train at intensities that are appropriate hence maximizing the benefits of the training efforts.
In determining the objective zone heart rate, determination of the maximum heart rate is paramount. It can be measured by applying the formula;
220-Age (given in years)=(MHR), There are two types of zones of heart rate, that is;
Lower level= 0.60*MRH= (This is the zone for the sixty percent of the maximum heart rate)
Upper level= .85* MRH = (It is the target area for the eighty-five percent of the maximum heart rate)
Target heart zone
Some paramount procedures need to be followed in determining if the person is in the target heart rate zone. Hence, it is necessaryto all the individuals who desire to attain the maximum benefit out of their training efforts. These steps are:
1. You need to stop momentarily.
2. Take pulse for fifteen minutes.
3. Effects of exercise on breathing and pulse rate.
The rate at which energy is needed from food increase with the rise in the level of activity. It thus increases the need for both oxygen and food in the body. It is the reason as to why the breathing and impulse rate increases with the level of exercise. Pulse rate is an indication of the heart rate since the arteries expand each time the blood is pumped into the ventricles out of the heart. Since more oxygen and energy is neededfor exercise, the heart speeds up to pump more of them to the muscles hence the rate of breathing increases to increase the supply of oxygen in the body and expel carbon (iv) oxide from the body.
When a healthy person is exercising such as an athlete, the levels of the lactic acids rises in the body less than in does for the unhealthy person. The time it takes for the pulse and the breathing rate to come back tonormal is referred to as the recovery time thus the fitter the person the shorter the recovery period.
Recovery time and training
Training enables the person to exercise more vigorously and for a long time before setting in of muscle fatigue. In this case, the training has the following advantages in improve of the body efficiency:
- it enables the heart to pump more blood with every heartbeat;
- it enhances the flow of blood through the body muscles;
- it increases the volume of the lungs hence absorption of more oxygen during inhalation and removal of carbon dioxide gas;
- it enhances the food supply energy to the muscles faster, therefore, sustaining the pulse rate;
- it reduces the production of the lactic acids in the muscles due to sufficient supply of oxygen therefore reducing the chances of muscles fatigue.
Relationship between the heart rate to the fitness and longevity
The human heart can beat a maximum of 220 times in every minute, and this is only possible with the small children. As the person ages, the heart beat rate declines though the main reason for the decline has not been established. The changes in the rate of a heart beat have got no relationship with the stamina or fitness (McArdle et al., 2006).The marathon runners often reach their peak in their late 30seconds regardless of the heart beating rate is fewer times as compared to that one of a young child of age less than ten years.
In determining the maximum heart rate, or the highest number of heart beat a heart can attain it in a minute, the age of individuals subtracted from 220. The figure obtained is useful in determining the suitable type of work from the person aerobic standpoint. Individuals who attempt to push theirheart rate beyond their maximum heart rate tend to tire faster hence will have to stop and take arrest. The study indicates that the highest workout rate should be eighty percent of the maximum age. The simplest way to accurately determine the value is multiplying the maximum heart rate with the 80%; this is also known as the maximum heart rate. For example, the person of age 40 would have a maximum heart rate of 144 beats per minute or 180*.80.
Therefore, for the person of this age to get involved in a serious work including running at a good pace, he may thus maintain the heart beat rate at 144 beats per minute for much of the activity, and this can be achieved by increasing or slowing down as needed. In most cases, people do prefer the activities that are not of this intensity but still they are effective. In this case, they may be targeting between sixty and seventy percent of the maximum beats for their age as the ideal number. However, some tend to vary their workout day by day or within the same workout. Working above sixty percent of the maximum heartbeat rate is ideal for the fitness of the individual while workouts less than sixty percent of the maximum of your age may not be sufficientfor promoting cardiovascular fitness.
What does the rate of heartbeat reveal about an individual?
The reason as to why the doctor takes pulses is to determine how to fit a person is. The person who is average at rest has a pulse rate of between seventy and seventy-five beats per minute. Those people who do more of the aerobic exercise have their resting pulses ranging between fifty and sixty pulses per minute. On the contrary, those people who are unfit and rarely participate in physical activities have a pulse rate of between eighty and ninety and a time more than that peer minute.
Those that have a regular aerobic exercise will have their resting pulse rate reducing significantly with time hence meaning that the heart does not have to start in beating as many times to get oxygen and nutrient gets to all part so the body (LeMura,2004). The best time to determine the pulse rate is during morning times while still in bed since the body has had enough rest since even a small walking would alter the rate of heartbeat. Also taking off some s drinks such as the caffeine, coffee, and soda will raise the pulse rate artificially by a great deal. In the night, most of the caffeine are flashed out, therefore, taking the pulse rate in the morning leads to reliable results that can be used to in determining the workouts.
The cardiac stress test is controlled by the heart rate. The apparatus are hooked up to the patients at rest to monitor the heart rate hence providing the EKG readings among other issues. The treadmill is increased gradually in both incline and speed. The testing continues to a period when the heart rate that is eighty percent of the maximum age of an individual where it stops. Those persons that are sedentary and not fit might get their results within the first five minutes of a test of light walking. However, the healthy person may stay on the treadmill for a period more than thirty minutes but at the end of the test, the person is forced by the treadmill to run fast and incline high. The stress test, therefore, reveals the fitness of an individual apart from detecting other abnormalities that might be present in the heart.
How many beats do I have left?
Some studies indicate that the heart has many beats in it where it will hit a certain number of beats and finally no more. They compared the case with that one of the Hay flick limits that show that many cells in the human bodies tend to divide into a certain number of times and stops finally (Schulz, 2006). There are a different number of beats from the persons that are fit as compared to those that are unfit. For instance, the heartbeat of a healthy person beats fifty-five times while the incapacitated person beats about eighty-five times per minute hence a difference of thirty beats per minute. When compared to an hour, it amounts to 18,000 heartbeats, 43,200 beats per day and more than fifteen million beats in a year. In a period of twenty years, the heart of a fit person will have had approximately 315million heart beats less as compared to the incompetent person. Hence, it is equivalent to about eleven years of the heartbeat.
Though it has not been established the number of beats that the heart has since the research is hard to undertake, the idea of the difference in the heat beat makes sense. It thus suggests that it is wise to have as many heartbeats in the saving account if there is truth in the given number of heart beats. The observation has also indicated that the persons who do regular exercise live longer than those that do not exercise apart from other benefits such as the less cardiovascular diseases,less hypertension, less cancer, weight loss, less diabetes and the better functioning of the brain.
Effects of music on the heart rate
In an experiment to determine the heart rate of individuals on exposure to different sorts of music, more than ten people were used in an experiment. People were placed on different sides and allowed to get sited in chairs. Their heart monitor then put in their index finger then the recording is carried out at the resting rate. The heart monitor was then removed from the index fingers then music was played for one minute. The recording procedure then takes place while they are still listening to the music to determine the change in the heart rate. Beethoven will alternate the songs such that the pop song by the Wanted was played followed by the rock song by Linking Park then a classical song. The sequence was repeated for all the participants and their information written in the created chart.
Based on the data that was collected, there was a change from the resting pulse to the listening of the music on teen out of twelve participants in the experiment. The hypothesis for the experiment become correct since the subjects reacted to the music that was played and everything happened in an expected m...
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