Fundamentals of communications and networking

2021-05-19 05:40:58
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The 21st century has the most important technology, which has involved the processing, gathering, and distribution of information. Computer science involves computation, programming, and computing in relation to computer systems. It focuses in how computers operate to test, design and analyze impressions. Computer science is surrounded by four methods in the study. The invention involves the formulation of new architectural paradigms and new algorithmic and analysis and evaluation of algorithms, software, and architecture. It also involves design principles to form difficult systems to resolve computational issues and using experiments to disclose computing principles.

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Networking is part of the work covered in computer systems. A computer network is the assortment of computers and other devices that are linked to other by communication channels for share resources and information. The networking process has a receiver, sender and communication medium that transfers signal from the sender to recipient. Computer networks communication can be collaborative, distributed or centralized computing (Lecky-Thompson, 2009). Collaborative computing is the combination of distributed and centralized. Distributed computing involves the connection of one or more computers allowing network sharing, data sharing, and resources sharing. Centralized computing has many terminals or workstations joined to the main mainframe.

Networks are divided into two types; client/server and peer-to-peer networks. Peer-to-peer networks are networks where not more than ten computers are involved and there is no strict security in their operation (Peterson & Davie, 2011). They are easy to set-up, can be implemented on a wide range of operating systems, are less expensive to install and require more time to maintain the software begun used. Client/server networks are used for larger networks and main computer functions as the storage area of applications and files that are shared within the network. They are more expensive to install, require less time to maintain the software, more difficult to set up and server runs on an operating system that supports networking.

The main devices used in networking are hubs, multistation access unit, switches, routers, and bridges. Hubs direct data packets to the devices connected to it and are common in networks that have twisted pair cabling. Multistation access unit gives networks a star appearance and executes token circulation in the device. Bridges divide larger networks into smaller ones and manage the flow of data between two physical segments. Routers, on the other hand, join two network segments to create larger networks.


There are categories of networks that include local area networks, metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (Brandwine & Hill, 2014). Local area networks are privately owned networks within a campus or building and are connected to workstations or personal computers in factories and companies. Metropolitan area networks are found in cities. The cable television network found in most cities is one of the examples of MAN. Wide area networks are common in the large geographical area in a continent or country. It contains hosts connected by a communication subnet. Customers own the hosts while the internet service providers or a telephone company owns the communication subnet.

INCLUDEPICTURE "" \* MERGEFORMATINET Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model has seven layers. The physical layer transmits raw bits over a communication channel. The data link layer transforms a raw transmission building into a line free of undetected transmission layers (Solomon & Kim, 2013). The network layer controls the subnet operations while the application layer has various protocols such as hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP). The transport layer accepts data and splits it to the network layer. It also ensures that the data arrives correctly. The presentation later involves semantics and syntax of the data transmitted to make computers with different information to communicate. Session layer offers services such as token management, dialog control, and synchronization.

In conclusion, networking is a part of computer science. There are various types of networks, which are the peer-to-peer and client/server networks. Networking functions through devices such as hubs, bridges, switches, and routers. The network categories are divided into local area network, metropolitan and wide area networks. Every learner needs to ensure information on networking is clear as it enables one to make it easy to understand computer science as a subject or course.


Brandwine, E. J., & Hill, P. J. (2014). U.S. Patent No. 8,644,188. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.Lecky-Thompson, G. W. (2009). Fundamentals of network game development. Boston, MA: Charles River Media.Peterson, L. L., & Davie, B. S. (2011). Computer networks: A systems approach. Burlington: Elsevier Science.Solomon, M., & Kim, D. (2013). Fundamentals of communications and networking.

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