The results of my analysis show that intrinsic factors have influence on travel motivation ranging from very important to not important al all. The factor that provides more pleasure and fun to respondents was ranked as very important as one which provides the greatest motivation. Spending time with family and friends, escape from daily routines and experience of adventure are very three vital factors that provides greater travel motivation to young German tourists to attend UEFA European Championship 2016 in France and therefore were ranked as very important. Spending time with family and friends appear first and this indicated that people had a stronger desire to develop and strengthen their relationships than escaping daily routines.
In this research analysis, standard deviation and mean was used to determine intrinsic factors that provided greatest travel motivation to Young Germans. Standard deviation was used to show the extent to which the responses of respondents were spread. The responses which showed low standard deviation 1 indicated that most respondents are happy with the travel motivator while 1 showed that most respondents were not happy with the said factor.
According to the result of this analysis, most respondents agree that spending time with family and friends motivated them most to travel (Mean 4.42, SD=0.76). In addition most of the respondents agreed that they were influenced to travel by escape from daily routine such as work or family chores (mean= 4.13, SD=0.90) and finally to experience adventure which was considered the third greatest motivator of young Germans to travel to France (Mean =4.02, SD =0.68). These factors were determined to provide travel motivation to young Germans as they had the highest mean and smallest standard deviation showing that most respondents agreed with them to have contributed to their motivation.
Factors such as meeting people from other cultures (average=3.79, SD=0.96), meeting people with similar interest (average =3.79, SD=1.06) and have rest and relax (average=3.61, SD=1.05) were considered important although there was a great disagreement about them as there was a great disparity on respondents responses. Only two factors were ranked neutral and they included to post photos and comments on social network (average=2.94, SD=1.26) and to be able to tell others about the event trip (average=3.22, SD=1.07).They were found to provide travel motivation fairly to all respondents but the only problem was that most respondents did not accept it fully and therefore there was a mixed opinion about it.
The research survey also showed that the respondents could least find travel motivation on impressing friends with the trip (Mean= 2.08, SD=1.09). This makes it be considered less important factor that contribute significantly on travel motivation. Majority of respondents responded negatively towards it and there was also greater disagreement on it. It therefore means that it did not influenced young Germans to travel to France to attend UEFA European Championship. Factors like to visit places where friends have not visited (average=2.40, SD=0.98) was also considered not important at all because the number of respondents who believed that they get travel motivation were very few. That response was also supported by many respondents since it had most respondents agreed about it.
4.3. Extrinsic Motivation
This is an action which is taken to provide instrumental value or any form of reward. In relation to tourism, there are other external factors that influence demand for tourism. These factors include desire for money, freedom and even personal security. Being able to receive some reward in the form of shopping opportunities, receive value for the money and overnight accommodation are very important factors that are able to influence travel behavior of some people.
Figure 4: Average extents of extrinsic travel motivators
(1= very important, 2= Important, 3=Neutral, 4=Less Important, 5=Not important at all)
According to the result of this analysis, value for money ratio provides motivation to most respondents in this category. It is therefore ranked as very important because most respondents agreed that it is very important (Mean=4.36, SD=0.63). Access to destination is also ranked as very important and few respondents disagreed with it (Mean=4.37, SD=0.72). This showed that these two factors provided travel motivation to young Germans to attend UEFA European champion in France. The factor which was considered less important by the respondents was nature, followed by sightseeing facilities. These factors showed high standard deviation with a small average (mean=2.54, SD= 1.05) (Mean=3.0, SD= 0.97) respectively. This also showed that there was a mixed opinion of respondents about these two factors. Factors which were considered important by respondents and they included personal security (average= 3.98, SD= 0.72), Nightlife (average =3.68, SD=0.93), over night accommodation (average=4.17, SD=7.96) and good infrastructure (average = 3.58, SD=0.78). Most respondents agreed that they were able to provide travel motivation. Other factors which appeared neutral included good weather and climate (average=3.48, SD=0.95), shopping opportunities (average= 3.02, SD = 1.05) respectively. The was high disparity on the responses of the respondents since most respondents disagreed with the opinion of other respondents that these factors provided travel motivation to Young Germans to attend UEFA Championship in France. There was no factor which was considered not important at all as factors had positive responses from respondents concerning the kind of travel motivation they get from each factor.
4. 4.Fan Motives
Desire to have fan is also another important factor that affect travel behavior. Fan motive is the inner drive to observe how certain things are done. The majority of respondents visit sports events with the sole purpose of having fan. Factors that enable tourists to have fan include desire to visit public fan festivals, to see World famous football players, identification with the team and stadium atmosphere.
Figure 5: Average extents of fan motivators
Stadium atmosphere was considered very important (average =4.28, SD = 0.89). This showed that most respondents considered it important as it had small standard deviation indicating that there was a slight disagreement between respondents. Majority of respondents also considered identification with the team and support as a very important factor that provide great fan (average =4.23 SD=0.87). It most respondents agreed that it was true as it has smaller standard deviation showing small disparity of respondents responses. Factors such as existing/ dramatic competition (average = 3.86, SD =0.94) and matches and visit to modern stadium (average=3.53, SD=0.97) were considered important by the respondents to provide great fan to them as shown in the graph above. The rest of the factors such as visit to public fan festival (average= 3.37, SD = 0.93) and to see world famous football player (average=3.45 SD=1.10) were observed as neutral since most respondents provided neutral opinion. There was a slight disagreement between respondents about it as some say that they do not provide fan to them while others say that they get some fan from them. There were no factors that were considered less important or not important at all as all these factors were found to provide fun to respondents to a given extent.
4.5. Factors that Prevent German Travelers from Attending
There are also other factors that inhibit German travelers from attending UEFA championship (Heichele, 2012). These factors also contribute a lot towards the number of German travelers who attend such a sporting activities or events. They include distance, language barriers, lack of interest in soccer, alternative program like public viewing and cost related factors. Without these factors almost all German travelers could have an opportunity to visit UEFA Championship.
Figure 6: Graph showing factors that prevents German Travelers from attending the event
The result of our study showed that 55% of the respondent believes that it is very expensive to visit such sporting event since most people consider it expensive. This is the most important factor that is considered first to inhibit visiting football sporting events. It is seconded by distance of sporting event locations, 39% of the respondents believe that distance is the inhibiting factor that that prevent German travelers to visit sporting events (Hall, 1992). They believe that the stadium is very far from their residential area and therefore they cannot reach the stadium easily. The third consideration is plan for other vacations, 23% of the respondents have other plans for vacation and therefore they consider them as a priority to attending sports event only for fan. Finally, the factor that is ranked least is the problem of language. This is a factor which is considered appropriate by few people since in football events there are only one language which is usually being used and that is English.
Hall, C. M. (1992). Hallmark tourist events: impacts, management and planning. Belhaven
Heichele, J. (2012). Der Sportkonsument im Zusammenhang mit Sportgrossereignissen :
Verbraucherverhalten am Beispiel der UEFA EURO 2012. Diplomica Vela, Hamburg
Holloway, C. (2006). The Business of Tourism. Pearson Education Limited, Harlow.
Lazzarotti, O. (2002). French tourism geographies: A review. Tourism Geographies, 4(2),
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