English is a West Germanic broadly used by various people in the world. Language refers to the means of communication used by individuals, either through written or spoken when exchanging ideas, made up of words in a conventional and constricted way (Canagarajah, 1999). There is a variety of Englishes which differ in terms of, grammar, punctuation as well as vocabulary. The most common of them is the standard English (Trudgil l& Hannah, 2008).
The term Globalization refers to the system of integration and interaction between individuals, governments of different states, and companies. This process is aggravated by international investmen, trade and supported by information technology. Through different types of English, people are able to interact and share ideas since they are able to understand one another through a common language, hence it enhances globalization. Through globalization, individuals my develop some kind of cultural identity in terms of social class, ethnicity, social group and nationality.
Culture and identity are associated with determining the different types of English by the individual characteristics of identity (Byram & Feng, 2004).. Different types of Englishes differ in terms of the culture and identity because of the different social class and cultural origin an individual speaking a given type of English comes from.
Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) is defined as a dialect of the Australian English applied by a wide segment of the Native Australian population (Tanvir, 2004). Different types of Englishes define the and interprets ones culture. Different types of English have its unique culture depending on the region and the personal social class. Some Englishes are regarded to be superior than the others depending on its origin.
Identity refers being the person who you are, this might be in terms of social class, race, literacy among others. The term culture has been defined by Pieterse (2004), as several definitions, but in this context, we will define culture as the cumulative attitudes, believe, values,attitude to life and nature as well as spatial relations, and religion (Milroy, 2002).
I want to write this essay in order to address key issues associated with the development of different Englishes and how these impact/interface with interpretations of language, culture, and identity.
My idea that English is spreading speedily around the globe, has been supported by Seidlhofer, (2009), who further claims that many of those who speaks it did not know its origin or the type of English they are speaking. There is difference in communication between people in the world, depending on their origin. The types of English range from complex to simple ones, in terms of pronunciation and vocabulary. The most interesting thing about this issue is that some individuals have a strong belief that the spread of English is being influenced by social class and easiness to understand it compared to the rest of common languages such as French, German, and Spanish (Seidlhofer, 2009). These ideas further explain the reasons why there are different types of Englishes, which differ from region to another within the globe.
When analyzing some recent literatures, I came to realize that the spread and adoption of English among people is being influenced by the cultural evolution of the language. In his book, Murray (2006) has demonstrated that there has been a significant spread of English, both in language and cultural ways. English is slowly evolving from its original form to the current one and is being divided into different types of Englishes.
Furthermore, Seidlhofer (2009) utilized his scholarly work to demonstrate that the inspiration for learning English before the real learning opportunity, with much explanation behind obtaining the dialect might end up being part of a higher social class. This may include earning a superior salary, getting away from the local culture, to sing the most recent tunes, and so on. This idea is supported by Harbus (2004) who observed that the obtaining of English might be a consequence of different inspirations, not a reason for those inspirations. Once in a while the required learning of a moment dialect in school, despite the fact that maybe not emphatically inspiring at the time, may later open doors or influence discernments (of self and by others).
In my view, I understand that the entire history of minority cultural groups around the globe deserting their native dialects and societies with the aim of the end goal to absorb to the overwhelming cultural group (or at times, to escape from its authority using another language) is known and is practiced today (Byram & Feng, 2004). Pieterse (2004), presents that, some people abandon their culture once they have buried their parents and they prefer learning the different type of English and they adopt its culture. Most views that Americalanguageand culture as a third optimistic way that will give them more control over their plans in future.
This unit seeks to explore issues with the English language as it is being spoken widely, both as a native and as a second language. Furthermore, the paper will analyze matters related to the emergence of the different types of Englishes and their impacts on identity and culture. I think we should be extremely watchful not to distort and essentially the connection between culture and language. It is particularly valid for a worldwide most widely used language, for example, English. As Jenkins (2006), noted in his case from Mexico, learning English doesnt need to be identified with either US culture or even Anglophone culture so far as that is concerned. This makes ideas, for example, cultural assimilation extremely problematic. In studying English isnt in any way open the culture learners are being "acculturated" into, assuming any (Seidlhofer2009).
According to Kachru (1996), gives out her idea that culture is dependably a portion of dialect and communication, though is not the similar as the culture being relentlessly connected to a particular country or ethnic gathering (e.g. English and the US). Thus, for instance, English can be learned to communicate and find out about different societies at an entire scope of scales from the local up to the national and the worldwide. Critically, it can likewise be a piece of developing a new cross breed together with liminal social groupings. But Etherington, (2005) insignificant research has been conducted in English and culture, with connection to the social characters in sociolinguistic studies and connection to English in Global Englishes and English as a lingua Franca examines.
English is being spoken by more than fifty percent of the countries in the world. Most countries have embraced this language, and they have become united, though most of the are non-native speakers. The reasons why English has become a global language for communication is because:
English is considered to be a business land finance language Li (2000). It has gained international dominance of Hollywood blockbuster movies which has attracted the attention of many (Etherington 2005) and through this, people can learn and understand English. Kirkpatrick (2002) shows that, English is a simple language that one can easily learn and speak, as compared to other languages that have complicated pronunciation. From the beginning of the internet, English has been used as an official language, most often familiar sites and search engines on the internet are in English. Additionally, English is being spoken by the world leading super state, hence some other countries have adopted their sense of language (Holliday, 2000). Last but not least, speaking of English is considered for the prestigious and therefore enhancing the individuals social status (Eades, 2004).
As per the article by Canagarajah and Silberstein, (2012), English can be deemed as an industry due to its application in daily life. English is commonly used in academic centers, hospitals, banking areas among other industrial parts. Due to its adaptability and implementation, the language has enhanced interaction of people and economic activities.
As an individual perspective, English is a universal language that used by many, and it also defines civilization. Countries that speak English as their Native language, for example, Canada, USA, UK and Australia; they live a civilized life as compared to some few countries that are still primitive living in the old ways. Hence, English defines a civilized culture (Jenkins, 2006).
According to my personal point of view, the term English refers to the means of communication used in various parts in the world. The language is associated with the cultural identity and social class. The use of English has changed over the years and now, we have different variety of Englishes being spoken. These forms of Englishes are being identified by pronunciation and the accent of every individual.
According to my point of view, Standard English is not a fictional one as it is being argued by Gee (2014), its rather, applicable and therefore widely accepted at an international level just as it is supported by Milroy, (2002) in his book Authority in language: Investigating standard English. I disagree with his idea because, the Standard English enables non-native English speaker is to be able to learn, understand, speak and write English that is a little bit of a higher level. The benefits of Standard English are unlimited. Standard English has improved individuals pronunciation of words; furthermore, it has minimized the grammar mistakes that learners of English repeatedly while trying to communicate in English either in written or spoken form (Phillipson, 1992).
The Standard English is commonly used in different levels of life. However, it has its advantages as well as drawbacks. The comprehension of the contrasts between the way you talk, your tongue, and Standard English will give you certainty to have the capacity to switch between the two when proper (Labov, 1969). Standard English is what is being tested by most of the tests, hence used by many English learners. However, some of the drawbacks that Standard English is being characterized are:
Standard English is believed to be unachievable for the most learners. Then learners are more exposed to other type of English while they are outside the class, hence making them to be in confusion while meeting the Standard English (Ma, & Ping, 2012). The English are much familiar, and most students and teachers use it through, media, literature review, and public documents etc.
This kind of English is closely associated with the socioeconomic power and prestige in the public mind, and therefore people are confident about it. Furthermore, the English are codified to a wide extent, in grammar books, dictionary, etc. Therefore constituting similar reference points for teaching and testing. Coleman (2006) states that the British Council has taken the initiative to promote English language around the world. Coleman (2006) further states that, the aim is centered on offering a high standard of language teaching to learners in 47 countries around the world. In the literature work by Phillipson, (2008), the British Council has for the past 75 years involved itself in supporting development of teachers in East Asia. The reason for doing this is to make English a universal language in many countries, British Council wishes that the language should be recognized at least as a secondly acquired language.
The publishing companies have played a significant role in promoting English, through providing learning materials for learners to en...
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