In real business unit, consumer behavior is an essential factor to consider in the determination of business to consumer process. The interaction between businesses to consumers should be treated with a lot of caution. Consumer behavior is the study of individual, group or organizations and the process to secure, select and dispose off a product, experience, an idea and the processes these factors have in the society. Consumers behavior is different depending on the choices they make which influence their buying habits. Therefore, it is very difficult to define behavior of a consumer since the power to make choices vary from person to person. Thus managers can only determine the future by the use of historical information to predict outcome of the respective consumer behavior. (Chu & Lee, n.d., p. 54) The purpose of the study is to determine the intention of the consumers to use online shopping in Bangladesh region. Moreover, it is up to knowing the risk, the benefits and buying experiences of the customers within and without Bangladesh. Besides, the researcher is deemed to identify how the products are diversified and differentiated to meet customers needs. Many a time, the behavior of consumers is determined by the ease of accessing the products and the prices in which the sellers and or the producers charge in the market. Therefore, it is believed that online services will provide a solution to the dilemma and or difficulties that the customers have been involved in over time.
Objective of the study
To determine consumers behavior, their attitude and experiences towards online shopping and thus show the benefits they can get from choosing this option within and without Bangladesh.
To determine the consumers characteristics and their experience in accepting online shopping in their daily business transaction within and without Bangladesh.
To determine the effects of perceived risks in online shopping, prices and ease of access to the product over time.
Over time, many scholars have concentrated on the factors which influence the consumers willingness to carry out online purchases. In the subsection of consumer behavior, there are various models clarifies how consumers respond to the products which are supplied in the market. The most used model is classical consumer online purchasing decision-making model which covers a routine to extensive problem solving behaviors of consumers (Nafisa, Kasem, Nasrin, & Shamima,2014). It demonstrates traditional method which is a five stage model. According to the model, the consumer first forms a state of felt deprivation and then proceeds to search of information on the problem in which they faces. The information got will formulate the basis for the process of considering different courses of action and propositions. Then the comparisons and evaluations from different courses of action will influence the consumer to make a decision to buy or not to buy. Then, consumers can carry out post purchasing analysis to determine the level of satisfaction on the product and service they have got online. It is also very vital for the E-marketers since it help them to make a decision on the strategies they ought to adopt. However, Peterson posited that it is an early stage in internet development to develop a model which determines consumers purchasing behavior. He stated that the decision making will depend on the market structure and the characteristics of the products in question.
Consumers attitude on online shopping is very critical factor affecting the actual purchases of consumers. There are various models which have been developed to explain shopping intention towards internet shopping in general. According to Jarvenapa and Todd shows a model that consists of indicators which belongs to four major categories. They include shopping experience, value of the products, quality of the service offered and the risks perceptions of internet retail shopping (Rakesh, & Madhushree, 2015).In addition, other researchers propose a nine factor which explain the users perception in relation to online shopping (Bashir, 2013).The risks of perception were the main discriminator between the choice of people buying online or not. Other factors include convenience and control over the shopping process, affordability of the stock , ease of use of the shopping site and the customers service. When Jarvenpa tested the consumers attitude towards online purchases, the attitude was related to the customers trust of the store, there was a positive correlations between the attitude and the stores in which they buy from online. Therefore, the study was concluded that risk perception and attitude affects the consumer to buy from the stores. Over time, it has been perceived that risks are very critical in determining the decision consumers daily make. Risks are the likelihood of losses or gains that originates from relationships between trustees. Besides, Jarvenpa identified that risks factors are the major factors which can lead to diminishing value of the online purchases in the near future. Most of the consumers worry originates from security and privacy of consumers information, uncertainty of the product quality and mistrust in the online transactions systems (Shashila & Suresh,2011).
According to Rice, there is an impact of perceived risks and impact of trusts is very critical in determination of online shopping. It will determine the level in which the customers enjoy online shopping experience and hence retaining the online shopping. The experience customers always will determine their online purchases according to the experiences they have got in it. (Keisidou, Sarigiannidis, & Maditinos, 2011) In general, the risks which influence the level of consumers behavior and performance include security, social, time and performance risks.
It has been identified that there is a big difference between retail shopping and online shopping. The difference mainly comes from the store atmospherics which describes the physical aspect of the store which include music volume, colour, music type, tempo and layout of the products. The other factor which has been identified to be affecting online shopping in and without Bangladesh is the ease of access to the websites and transactional controls that vary from one consumer to another. The ease of access can be traced from three main perceived channels of utilities. They include distribution, communication and accessibility. If all these factors are properly coordinated, then ease of access will be a better option.
In relation financial transactions and exchange of commodities, customers have approved numerous benefits they have received. The concept was clarified by the use of technology acceptance model. It is a model which states that the use of the system is directly proportional to the behavioral intention to use which is influenced by the consumers attitude to use the system. It states that a persons belief in the use of a system is a major determinant of consumer behavior.
It is supported by theory of planned behavior which states that an individuals behavior is mainly influenced by their behavioral intentions which is determined by their attitude. Thus for online purchases to be effective, attitude and intentions of the users becomes a key factor to be determined.
Empirical literature reviewAccording to the research carried out among consumers in Bangladesh to determine their behavior in relation to chain store purchases, it was found that consumers tend to lay more emphasis on the quality of the product, availability of special and variety of products, competitive price, layout of the store and the quality of service delivery. Quality of the product contributed 66% of the percentage, product variety 54% and special products was found to take 52%.The average rating of customers use of online shopping in the stores was recorded to be 71% on the minimum side and 83% on the upper end. The main statistic was found from Agora users who strongly supported the move. Customers from Meena Bazar really expressed high level of satisfaction on the use of online shopping. Meena Bazar had 81%, Agora 78% and Shwampo contributed 60%.34% of Well Mart proved that online services worked well while 40% of Khulshi Mart were highly satisfied and really worked in favor of the system.
According to (Tech, 2002) usefulness for the use of a system is the utility of online transactions on an online web. The TAM model and Teck model did major to research about the effect of the perceived web privacy, security, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness based on online transactions intent. (Teck, 2002) TAM model was later modified by Aulvin to include individual differences which include shopping orientations, prior web experience and demographic experiences which shall influence individuals motive to shop online. TAM model was also used by Lee carry out a study about self-efficacy and determinant of factors that increases ease of use of online services (Lee, 2009).).However, these factors cannot perform well due to a number of challenges which comprise of customers innovativeness, perceived benefits to be generated from online shopping, perceived level of risks, online shopping attitude, online shopping intention. From the literature review above it can be deduced that there is a strong correlation between risks, prices, variety of the product to consumer behavior
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Banerjee, S., Mukherjee, A., & Bandyopadhyay, S. (n.d.). Effect of Social Networks on Consumers' Inclination towards Online Shopping using Transaction Cost Analysis in an Agent-based Framework. PsycEXTRA Dataset. doi:10.1037/e610172012-006
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Chu, Y., & Lee, J. J. (n.d.). The Experiential Preferences of the Online Consumers in Different Internet Shopping Lifestyles Towards Online Shopping Websites. Human-Computer Interaction. HCI Applications and Services, 3-11. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-73111-5_1
Devi, S., & Saini, P. (n.d.). Online Shopping: Interplay of Influencing Factors, Risks & Benefits. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2698528
Hsu.,S.(2012).Factors Influencing on Online Shopping Attitude and Intention of Mongolian Consumers. The Journal of International Management Studies, 7 (2), 168-170.
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