1. Mexico is located in the south of North America. In the north Mexico borders with the United States (i.e., the states of California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas), this border has length of 3141 km. Border to the east of the city of Ciudad Juarez and to the Gulf of Mexico runs along the winding Rio Grande river. Several natural and man-made markings define a border with the United States west of Ciudad Juarez to the Pacific Ocean.
Mexico is washed by the Pacific Ocean from the west and the south, and the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea from the east. In the south-east Mexico borders with Guatemala (871 km) and Belize (251 km). Mexico is the northern part of Latin America and the most populous Spanish-speaking country.
Brazil has the largest area and population in South America. It occupies the eastern and central part of the continent. It has borders with Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, on the south - with Uruguay, to the west - with Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia and Peru, in the northwest - with Colombia. In the north and east washed by the Atlantic Ocean. The highest point of Brazil - Pico da Neblina (3014 m), located on the border with Venezuela.
Brazil occupies the eastern and central part of South America. The greatest length from north to south is 4,320 km and 4328 km from east to west. It shares borders with all the countries of the continent except Chile and Ecuador: French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela, to the north, Colombia to the northwest, Peru and Bolivia in the west, Paraguay and Argentina to the south-west and the south by Uruguay. The length of the land boundaries is about 16 thousand km. The length of the coastline is 7.4 thousand km. The structure of Brazil also includes several archipelagos, in particular Fernando de Noronha, Rocas, Sao Paulo and Trinidad.
2. The territory of Mexico has about 150 rivers, 2/3 of which flow into the Pacific Ocean, and the rest in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Despite the apparent abundance of water resources, their distribution across the country is very uneven.
The Tropic of Cancer divides Mexico into zones with tropical and temperate climates. The temperatures in the areas to the north of the 24th parallel in winter are lower (average temperatures are from 20 0 C to 24 0 C), while in the areas of sub temperature is relatively constant and depends mainly on the height of - at 1,000 m (the southern parts of both coastal plains and the Yucatan peninsula), the average temperature is between 24 0 C and 28 0 C.
Brazil is characterized by a hot climate. Average monthly temperatures range from 16 to 29 0 C; only high eastern massifs average July temperature of 12 to 14 0 C; frosts are possible. However, precipitation types and climate conditions are different. In the west Amazonia equatorial humid climate (rainfall 2000-3000 mm per year, the amplitude of average monthly temperatures is 2-3 0 C), in the east of the Amazon and surrounding steep slopes of the Guiana and Brazilian Highlands - subequatorial a dry period of 3-4 months (rainfall 1500 -2000 mm, on the coast about 3000 mm per year). In the center of the Brazilian Highlands and the Pantanal there is sub-equatorial humid climate (rainfall 1400-2000 mm per year) with large amplitudes of temperatures (especially the extreme - to 45-50 0 C); in the north-east of the plateau rainfall drops to 500 mm less than a year, and the rains are very irregular: it is an area of frequent and prolonged droughts. On the eastern border of the climate is tropical, hot and humid, with a short dry season. In the south of the plateau there is constantly humid climate, tropical plateau in Parana and subtropical upland eastern regions to the south of 24 0 south latitude.
3. There was one of the most advanced civilizations of the Western Hemisphere on the territory of Mexico. In XII-V centuries. BC. the ancient Mexican Olmec culture flourished there. The Olmecs were the first who built magnificent temples and palaces on American soil. Their culture influenced the formation of later civilizations and their cultures, particularly in the highly developed civilization of the Maya. Ancient Mayan empire flourished in the VII-VIII centuries. Maya hieroglyphic writing was invented, created a solar calendar, they were watching the stars, perform complex calculations. In the XIV century Aztec empire arose, later evolved into the most powerful state in the Central and South Mexico. The capital of the Aztec empire - Teno-chtitlan - was built on the site of modern Mexico City. The rumors about the riches and achievements of the Aztecs drew the attention of the Spanish conquistadors. In 1521 the Spaniards, led by Cortez captured Tenochtitlan, killed the Emperor Moctezuma II, and, seized his treasure, established Spanish rule and adopted Catholicism. Mexico became the vice-kingdom under the name of New Spain, which existed under the rule of the Spanish crown. In 1821 the National Movement for the Liberation of the country that included the colonialists and the weakening of Spain in connection with the Napoleonic conquests led to the fact that in 1821 Mexico gained its independence, and in 1823 Republic was proclaimed in the country. In 1824, a constitution was adopted, in order to equate the rights of Indians and the white descendants of the Spaniards. By the beginning of the bourgeois-democratic revolution in Mexico (1910 - 1917), foreign capital controlled the basic industries, the American and British companies have taken a leading position in the mining, oil and other industries. As a result of the revolution constitution was adopted which proclaimed the right of the Mexican people on the ground, in addition, it has allowed to carry out agrarian reform. During the First World War, the government was engaged in the creation of the domestic industry to overcome the dependence on imports of goods. On January 1, 1994, Mexico joined the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
In the ancient times the territory of Brazil was inhabited by Indian tribes of Arawak, Carib, i.e. panels. At the beginning of the XVI century it was conquered by the Portuguese conquistadors. When in 1808 Napoleon occupied Portugal, he fled to Brazil Portuguese King Joao VI and founded the Portuguese empire with its capital in Rio de Janeiro. After the return of the king to his homeland, his son Pedro I, had to rule Brazil, under pressure of the liberation movement September 7, 1822 declared independence from the Portuguese crown. In 1831 Pedro was abdicated in favor of his son Pedro II, on whose reign was the era of economic and political prosperity of the country. At the end of the XIX century Brazil had a flow of immigrants from Europe, and began the penetration of the North American capital. In 1888, slavery was abolished, and since 1889 Brazil became a federal republic. In 1930, the power in the state was seized by the military junta led by President Vargas. During his reign significant progress in the national economy has been made, despite the limitation of rights and freedoms of citizens. In 1945, a civilian government came to power. The capital of Rio de Janeiro was transferred to the reconstituted city of Brasilia. However, in 1964 another coup took place. The power passed to the military government that has been running the country until 1985.
4. Mexico has a population of over 118 million people. National composition: Metis (63%); Indians (30%); white (5%); Asians, mulatto (2%). Mexicans live to 74 years on average.
In 2013 the number of the population of Brazil was about two hundred and one million people. The number of residents in the Federative Republic of Brazil has increased over the years. So in 2000, at the turn of the twentieth and twenty-first century, there were about one hundred and seventy million.
Today, the population of Brazil has the following ethnic composition:
- Mestizos of Portuguese-Indian descent (North and West -Brazil);
- Africans (North-east);
- Europeans: Italians, Germans, Portuguese, Poles (big cities and industrial centers of the South).
Brazilians live up to 73 years.
Mexico has experienced all the charm of the colonial policy of the Old World. Strong cocktail of Indian blood who once inhabited these lands, and the Spanish conquistadors, who came in the XVII century to conquer new territory flows in the veins of todays inhabitants.
Deep knowledge in the field of astronomy, architectural masterpieces and the amazing ability to process materials of different nature gave the descendants of Mexican Indians of Mayan civilization. Many of the puzzles that are left after the tribes are not solved up to now. The ancient Mayan city of UNESCO was included into the list of World Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
Pyramids and temples erected by the Maya Indians, striking splendor, size and variety of forms.
Day of the Dead is considered one of the most unusual, but attractive in the Mexican culture.
In general, the culture of Brazil has always evolved and is still formed as a mixture of different nations traditions, which determined the Brazilian nation.
Initially, the Portuguese brought to these lands their own religion and their own language, but had an impact on the development of culture and Native American, African settlers, as well as many other immigrants from Europe, Asia and the Middle East. As a result, today in Brazil can enjoy an unusually beautiful music, excellent cuisine and talented Brazilian great writers.
This is most clearly seen in the influence of African dances, particularly the samba can be noted, which is characterized by rhythmic movements. Waltz, polka, other European genres that have been brought here by settlers and colonizers, also had a strong influence.
5. In 2002 Mexico's GDP was 643 billion dollars USA. The share of the agricultural sector was 6%, industry - 26% and the service sector - 68%. The unemployment rate was 2%, inflation - 6.4%. The external debt of Mexico is 158.3 billion dollars USA. A quarter of the working population is engaged in agriculture. The industrial sector employs 22% of the working population. Mexico's territory is rich in such minerals as oil, natural gas, zinc, salt, copper, uranium, manganese, gold and silver. Income generated by tourism is US $ 4.647 billion. Trade balance - compensated. Main export products: electrical products, automobiles and spare parts, engineering goods, petroleum, chemical products.
51% of imports comprise engineering goods and vehicles. US is Mexico's most important trading partner.
Over the last 25 years Brazil has turned from an agrarian country into a state of transition. However, the Brazilian "economic miracle" is pronounced as regional characteristics with signs of extreme social inequality. In 2001 it amounted to US $ 709.5 billion in gross national income. The share of agriculture accounts for 14%, industry - 37%, services - 49%. The most important trading partners are the United States and Argentina.
6. Low wages, large part of the population is underemployment, unequal distribution of income, limited opportunities for the poorest southern states, predominantly populated by Indians.
Device problems at work stimulates a huge migration of people in Mexico City, and the states in the US capital. It is estimated that the number of people who in 1990 migrated because of work search, was 14 million.
Moreover, the problem of drug trafficking has occupied a prominent place in the Mexican-American agenda and was "sore point" in relations with the US.
Brazil's problem is the social inequality that is considered to be the main problem of the country and flagrantly interferes with the growth of the economy. Because of the unequal distribution of income in Brazil, high levels of poverty. Child labor in Brazil is a sad fact. There are 4 million children aged between five and sev...
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