Colonization HistoryModule 1 Discussion Assignment M1.4/5

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What did Spanish conquest mean for the Native inhabitants of the New World in the initial decades of Spanish colonization?

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The Spanish conquest to the native inhabitants referred to the conquer by the Spanish colonies during the colonial period. During that period, many men came to the new world in search of fortune, land and glory. For approximately two centuries, the men had an exploration of the new world while conquering all the native inhabitants they would come across in the name of the hope of gold, i.e. the King of Spain (Leonard,1992). In that case, they came to be referred to as conquistadors. These were the kind of men who would take up their arms to subjugate, conquer and result in the conversion of the Native into the New World. Europe was the origin of almost all the conquistadors (Leonard,1992). Some of them came from Greek, Flemish, and German etc. with most of them coming from Spain. They came from families ranging from the lower nobility to the poor. Rarely did the high-born needed to search off in search of adventure.

Module 1 Application Assignment M1. M1.1, M1.2, M1.3, M1.4

Compare and contrast three Native American settings in the New World prior to European colonization. Identify at least one sedentary tribe in the New World setting and how horticulture altered the way of life in this setting.

Prior to the European colonization, the plain Native Americans used to live in a variety of nomadic as well as sedentary communities. They participated in hunting and gathering and also farmed corns while establishing healthy diets and diverse lifestyles. Besides, upon the arrival of the horses on the plains with the Spanish colonizers, a lot of disruptions to the agricultural norms was disrupted and also hunting competition intensified between the Native American groups.

However, live in the New World after the Spanish colonization changed. While the Americans remained to be controlled by the natives, peoples in the first European settlement decades. There was a rise in conflict with the spread of colonization, and also there was more pressure to the natives to convert to Christianity, I.e. either Protestantism or Catholicism (Taylor, 2002). In addition, unlike prior to the colonization, there was no more life of hunting and gathering. Also, there was a gradual change in healthy lifestyles due to European arrival. After the colonization, horticulture gradually developed independent of agriculture, into a sophisticated science as it is today. Change in horticulture resulted in various impacts (Taylor, 2002). These effects incorporate the impact of agricultural social orders, what's more, claim to fame affiliations; the advances in refrigeration and capacity; the help of the media; the ascent of the utilization of synthetic compounds and plastics; and the call for institutionalization and guideline in the present globalized industry.

Describe the most striking features of the native societies of the New World at the time of the encounter with European explorers. What did you find most surprising?

The most striking features of the native societies of the new world at the time of encounter with the European explorer is that there was a widespread of diseases which resulted in the depopulation among the indigenous culture. The European colonial settlements led to people being exposed to the indigenous populations to Christianity, expulsion from their land and forced labor apart from foreign diseases. The rampant epidemic diseases where the natives had no prior resistance or exposure, was one co-factor of the decline in America's population. As the African slaves arrived in the new world, along with them, they brought the infectious diseases of Europe and America. There was a tremendous scope of the epidemic over the years as millions of people were killed with the highest population from the hardest-hit areas.

What I find most surprising is that the epidemic had already killed massive number of the indigenous population when many newer immigrants had an assumption that there had always been relatively new indigenous people. One of the diseases which was most devastating was smallpox, while other deadly diseases were measles, influenza, typhus, cholera, pubonic plague, malaria, among other diseases including whooping cough. Also, the new world was faced with endemic diseases such as tuberculosis and usually the virulent type of syphilis which was widely spread when it was brought back to the old world. The diseases transfer between the new world and the old world was part of the Columbian exchange phenomenon.

What were the main factors fueling the European age of expansion?

Various factors fueled the European age of expansion. These included the need for the resources and trade, the spread of the freedom to the native people and also the spread of religious freedom. The conquest of the European in America began as an offshoot quest to find a sea route to India, China as well as to the islands of the East Indies. This was to provide a basis of the legal access to international trade (Inman, 1993). They also wanted to do away with the unpleasant of life. They had the main phrase for describing their motivations which included "Gold, God and Glory".

They also desired to participate in international commerce which was facilitated by the direct route to India. The age of expansion of the European absolutely brought about a fortune of gold and silver. At first, the objective was to search for a watercourse to Asia to exchange for new items and flavors. Some pursued interest and a desire for notoriety (Inman, 1993). Others felt an increasingly handy monetary and strict thought process.

Describe the key features of the Spanish colonial world. What institutions did Spain devise to exploit native labor in the New World?

The early interactions between the native Americans and the Spanish who were living in the south and central America led to a series of cultural exchanges that affected both the old world and the new world. One of the main features of their colonial world was the extraction of gold and silver from the Americas to stimulate the Spanish economy and also make Spain a more powerful country (MacLachlan, 1988). In addition, during their colonial period, the Spanish had a target of converting the Native Americans to Christianity.

The Spanish colonizers also treated labor systems like the encomienda system to exploit Native American labor. This was the institutions devised by Spain for the exploitation of the native labor in the new world. When the natives began to die from various diseases like smallpox, the Portuguese and the Spanish began capturing and sending all the Africans who were enslaved to America's labor force (MacLachlan, 1988). Besides, the Spanish colonizers attempted to integrate the Native Americans into the culture of Spanish by marrying them and also converting them to Catholicism.

Explain the impact of the Columbian exchange on the Old World (Europe) and the New World.

Columbian exchange referred to as the widespread transfer of plants, animals, human populations, culture, diseases as well as the ideas between West Africa, America and the old world in the 15th and 16th centuries (Lange, 2006). It occurred when Christopher Columbus introduced concepts of mercantilism to the New World. Several impacts arose as a result of the Columbian exchange. Wide variety of crops and livestock was widespread, which supported population increases in both hemispheres, though diseases initially caused precipitous declines in the numbers of the indigenous Americans. The Europeans traversed the Atlantic, and they brought with them animals, plants and diseases that changed the lives and landscapes on both sides of the ocean. "Amerindian crops that have crossed seas-for instance, maize to China and the white potato to Ireland-have been stimulants to populace development in the Old World" (Boivin, 2012). The last's yields and animals have had a lot of a similar impact in the Americas-for instance, wheat in Kansas and the Pampa, and hamburger steers in Texas and Brazil. There was also an introduction of diseases to the new world as part of the exchange, negating some of the advantages which were brought about as a result of trade.

Module 2 Essay Assignment M2.1-7

Compare the Chesapeake and New England colonies. Explore the various reasons for the colonists' emigrating to the New World, their economies, gender roles, demographics, religion, and relations with the Indians. How did land ownership compare from one region to the other? Which pattern of settlement is more representative of American development after the seventeenth century?

The colonies in the New World showed up extraordinary, and the possibility of any solidarity between them appeared to be unimaginable. The provinces in New England and the Chesapeake epitomize the numerous distinctions in the way of life and ways of life of the pioneers, made principally on account of the way that their establishing fathers had held separate goals when they went to the New World (Lange, 2006). The New England and Chesapeake provinces were both settled by outsiders from England. The Chesapeake region developed into a land of plantations and also the owners who were driven by the money, with the elite wealthy and those in poverty creating population. New England had developed into a society based on family and religion, which was comprised of mainly middle-class families by 1700. Looking closely at the ethic, terrain, government, as well as the people themselves, shows some instances on how the drastic split in the society came to be (Lange, 2006). It was one America, but two distinct societies had developed by 1700s.

Module 2.3 Discussion Assignment M2.3

Compare the English treatment of Native Americans with that of the Spanish in the New World. In your opinion, which group treated Native people more justly?

The English did not establish a permanent settlement in the new world until more than a century after the Spaniards. In the two cases, the Englishmen confronted an issue that the Spaniards likewise experienced a century sooner: they needed to decide how to assess the locals and how to manage them. The English lived in closeness to the Indians for certain years. This mixing, in any case, didn't create indistinguishable outcomes from that of the Spaniards. The North American Indians didn't cease to exist as quickly as their local people groups of the Caribbean and the English, who came in families, didn't between wed with the Indians as now and again as the Spaniards.

There were also some similarities between the two groups. The British just like the Spaniards sought to enslave the Indians in futility, and they also fought, had to convert them to Christianity, though not nearly as diligently as the Spanish had. The Puritans in New England tried to persuade the Indians to accept Christianity. However, the whole relationship between the Indians and the British was a bad one. The two components which it depended on couldn't support warmth: exchange and land inhabitance. By and large, the exchange connection relies on the trade of hides for knickknacks, guns, and covers. Therefore, in my opinion, the Spanish treated the native people more justly since they were not enslaving just as the British would do.

Module 3 Essay Assignment

What factors contributed most significantly to the growth and prosperity of the British mainland colonies? Backup your answer with at least three reasons. Additionally, what were the most significant results of the Enlightenment and Great Awakening in the British colonies? Backup your answer with at least two reasons.

Some of the factors that contributed to the British colonies' prosperity were the dethroning of King James, population growth and...

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