Articles Analysis Essay on Link Between Psychology and Education

2021-06-09 01:48:05
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1587 words
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Wesleyan University
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Self-Efficacy And Academic Performance of The Students of Gujrat University, Pakistan

Research Design used

In the article, Self-Efficacy And Academic Performance of The Students of Gujrat University, Pakistan, by Bushra Akram and Lubna Ghazanfar, the researchers conducted detailed research to find out whether students self-efficacy beliefs affected their academic performance and also to determine whether gender differences in self-efficacy exist (Akram & Ghazanfar, 2014). The data on self-efficacy, the independent variable, was collected using a self-administered questionnaire, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES), created from Banduras four sources of self-efficacy. Because it utilizes surveys in data collection and enlists hypotheses, this is a quantitative research. Through data collection and analysis, the researchers established a positive relationship between self-efficacy and academic performance.

Sampling Strategies

The participants were selected from a population which comprised of a student of the faculties of social and basic sciences who were in their third semester of their Master's studies. The target population consisted of 371 students with the majority (219) being female. In this article, Akram and Ghazanfar uses a simple random sampling technique to pick the participants for the study. Simple random sampling is beneficial because it ensures representativeness of the sample and reduces human bias in sample selection. A total of 193 participants (female= 128 and male= 65) were included in the final sample Akram & Ghazanfar, 2014).

Instruments Used for Data Collection

The instrument that was used in the collection of data in this article was Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES) used to gather participants data on self-efficacy. The researchers reported that the instrument had a high reliability with its internal consistency being 0.81. To ensure that the instrument had high validity, the researchers employed professionals in the development of the instruments items. Through factor analysis, the authors made sure that only items with good validity were incorporated in the final instrument. Therefore, ASES had a high reliability and validity. Because the instrument was highly valid and reliable, the research findings are trustworthy.

Ethical Approach to the Research

Akram and Ghazanfar used valid and reliable instruments in collecting data for this study. The validity of the instruments was confirmed through factor analysis while its reliability Cronbachs alpha reliability test. The researchers maintained participants confidentiality by ensuring that their information was only used for research purpose. Therefore, participants privacy and confidentiality were not violated in this study as anonymity was maintained. The data on academic performance (CGPA) were obtained from the University and thus verifiable.

Overall Quality of the Article

The study has a clearly stated purpose, objectives, and hypotheses. The sample for the study was also selected through probability sampling approaches, and thus the final sample is representative of the population. Instruments used to gather data on research variables were both valid and reliable Additionally, adhered to ethical standards when carrying out this research and utilized appropriate data analysis techniques to address the research hypotheses. For the reasons described above, the article is of high quality and thus will retain for the literature review.

The Contribution of Personality Traits And Self-Efficacy Beliefs To Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

Research Design used

In the article, The contribution of personality traits and self-efficacy beliefs to academic achievement: A longitudinal study, the researchers used longitudinal research design to establish the pathways through which personality traits and self-efficacy beliefs contribute to students academic performance (Caprara, Vecchione, Alessandri, Gerbino, & Barbaranelli, 2011). The study focused on data gathered about participants openness and conscientiousness and of self-efficacy at four points of during the study.

Sampling Strategies

The participants for the study consisted of a sample of 412 Italian students (196 boys and 216 girls) aged 13 to 19 years chosen through cohort sampling technique (Caprara, Vecchione, Alessandri, Gerbino, & Barbaranelli, 2011).

Instruments Used for Data Collection

The researchers used highly valid and reliable measures to gather data on the variables of interest. The data on one of the variables, openness, and conscientiousness, was collected using children's version of Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) containing 13 items for each of the five dimensions. The reliability of BFQ-C instrument ranged from .71 to .84 at time 1 and time 3 of the study indicating that the dimensions of the instrument had good reliability. Additionally, BFQ-C had high correlation (.89) between factor scores showing that the instrument is a valid measure of the personality constructs.

The second measure, academic perceived self-efficacy scale, had two domains measuring students ability to measure different academic subjects and students capacity for self-regulated learning. The two domains had Cronbach's alpha reliability of up to .89 indicating the high internal consistency of items in each of the domains. Like BFQ-C, exploratory factor analysis revealed that academic perceived self-efficacy scale was a valid measure of academic self-efficacy and self-regulated learning as indicated by unidimensionality of items forming the scale (Caprara, Vecchione, Alessandri, Gerbino, & Barbaranelli, 2011).

Ethical Approach to the Research

Caprara, Vecchione, Alessandri, Gerbino, and Barbaranelli (2011) adhered to research ethics when carrying out this study. First, the researchers sought the approval of the school council before undertaking the research. Second, informed consent was sought from the parents before data was gathered from the children. Moreover, children were free to withdraw from participating in the study and also to decline to take part in the study (Caprara, Vecchione, Alessandri, Gerbino, & Barbaranelli, 2011).

Overall Quality of the Article

The article is of high quality because of certain reasons. First, the source is authoritative it has been published by a reputable publisher (Wiley Publishers) and also published in the British Journal of Educational Psychology, one of the leading journals of psychology. Its authority is also supported by the fact that it is primary research work with quality references. Moreover, the researchers used quality questionnaires in data collection and adhered to ethics of research. Because of the reasons mentioned above, I will retain this source for my literature review.

Academic Achievement: The Unique Contribution of Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Self-Regulated Learning beyond Intelligence, Personality Traits, and Self-Esteem

Research Design used

In the article, Academic achievement: The unique contribution of self-efficacy beliefs in self-regulated learning beyond intelligence, personality traits, and self-esteem, the researchers employed longitudinal research design to examine the impact of self-efficacy beliefs in self-regulated learning (SESRL) in predicting students academic achievement beyond intelligence, personality traits, and self-esteem (Zuffiano et al., 2013).

Sampling Strategies

The participants for the study comprised of 170 students recruited from a public junior high school in Genzano, a community situated near Rome. They had just begun their eight grade when the data on the variables of interest (personality traits, intelligence, self-esteem, and SESRL) were gathered (Zuffiano et al., 2013).

Instruments Used for Data Collection

The researchers used several measures to collect data on different variables. All measures were reported to good reliability. First, data on intelligence was gathered using Culture-Fair Intelligence Test, a test which measures a persons fluid intelligence. The instrument had a reliability of 0.77 as measured by the SpearmanBrown split-half coefficient. Participants personality traits were assessed using Big-Five QuestionnaireChildren (BFQ-C) having the reliability of between .71 and .84 in various domains. Lastly, participants self-esteem was measured using Rosenberg self-esteem scale, which also had an excellent reliability of .78 (Zuffiano et al., 2013).

Ethical Approach to the Research

The researchers observed research ethics when conducting this research. Before collecting data from the participants, the researchers obtained approval from the school council, comprised of parent and teacher representatives. After that, informed consent was sought from the parents of each of the students. Furthermore, strict adherence to ethical guidelines for research was realized by employing well-trained researchers to collect the data (Zuffiano et al., 2013).

Overall Quality of the Article

The research article is highly authoritative for the following reasons: It is a primary research article, has been published by a leading journal (Elsevier), and is also supported by quality references. The article is also well organized, with clear research purpose and research hypotheses. The instruments used to gather research data are also of high quality. Because of the above-stated reasons, I will retain the source for my literature review.

Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement A Case From Turkey

Research Design used

In the article, Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement A Case From Turkey, Koseoglu (2015) employed correlational study design to determine whether students self-efficacy beliefs affected academic achievement.

Sampling Strategies

The participants comprised of 214 students, aged between 18 and 20, enrolled in undergraduate studies at a private university in Turkey. All the participants who were enrolled in various departments (Art and Science, Business Administration, Communication, Engineering, Architecture, and Law) were picked to participate in the study. Because no random sampling was carried when choosing the sample, the researcher utilized non-probability sampling technique to arrive at the final sample.

Instruments Used for Data Collection

The researchers used three different instruments to collect data on the variables of interest. All measures were reported to have good reliability, with Cronbachs alpha values for internal consistency ranging from .65 to .89. First, Motivated Strategies For Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was used to measure motivational orientations, learning strategies, and resource management strategies. The MSLQ subscales used had Cronbachs alpha values of 0.70 or above. The Implicit Theories Of Intelligence Scale used to assess participants intelligence, had Cronbachs alpha reliability coefficients of .84 and .88 in the entity and incremental subscales respectively. Lastly, Achievement Goal Inventory Scale used to measure students achievement, normative and mastery goals was reported to Cronbachs alpha reliability coefficients of between .81 and .89 (Koseoglu, 2015).

Ethical Approach to the Research

The researchers strictly adhered to research ethics when conducting this research. To ensure confidentiality, the researchers asked the participants to respond to questionnaire items individually. The participants were also assured that their responses to the items would be kept confidential. Furthermore, ethical guidelines for protection of participants were followed throughout the study (Koseoglu, 2015).

Overall Quality of the Article

The studys aim and hypotheses are clearly stated. The article is also organized and logically major research findings of the primary...

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