Annotated Bibliography on Teens Pregnancy

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Teen pregnancy is associated with stigmatization that comes especially when one gets a pregnant a young age. Many people judge such teens and view them as promiscuous. This situation is stressful and may lead to depression among the teens that lack a proper support system. On the other hand, some teens may want to procure an abortion that may bring other negative consequences in their health. Such people need counseling to help them cope with the situation, and as such counseling services are essential among them.

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Geographic Location: Phillips County, Arkansas

Arkansas is one of the states with the highest rates of teen pregnancies in America while Phillips is one of the leading counties in the state in the rates of teen pregnancy. The county is also characterized by the relatively low economic status of its population, who are majorly Black Americans. The location is, therefore, suitable for the program because these factors.

Annotated Bibliography

Bell-Tolliver, L., Kramer,T.L. Lynch, C. and Small,.J. (2012). Young African American Perceptions of Substance Use in Rural Eastern Arkansas Communities. J Ethn Subst Abuse, 11(3): 199213.

The main aim of this article was to study the obstacles to treatment of substance abuse. The researchers used focus group dialogues among the African American youth in the region. These groups consisted of adolescents who have previously or currently using drugs, those who are not using substance but understand the issue, and young adults who started substance use while they were adolescents.

Other than the perception, the study looked at the consequences of substance use in the community, and teen pregnancy featured prominently. This forms the link to this article and my proposal because it brings out one of the major reasons that lead to teen pregnancy in Phillips County. Another reason that makes this article relevant is the fact that it studies the African American community, which forms the majority of the population in Philips and therefore, it serves as a good representation of the community of my proposal.

The ethical considerations in this study are the accuracy of the study, and fairness and maintaining the privacy of the subjects in the study. These issues affect my proposal in a way that before setting up this program, the data I have should be valid; I should be fair to all while implementing it and also, I should not reveal the identity of those who may want to remain anonymous.

Desirae, D M. and Karen, J H. (2007). Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses. Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, 30 (1): 4-12

Just like the title suggests, this article looks at the causes of teen pregnancy in America and how various groups respond to it. In essence, Desirae and Karen present a brief historical account of adolescent pregnant and the factors that lead to the issue of adolescence pregnancy. They also look at the consequences of the issue and the implications for physicians, scholars and educators.

The article is relevant in my proposal because it will help me understand the history of abortion and in America and relate it to Phillips. It will also expand my knowledge so that I can apply it on the ground. The ethical consideration in this article that could affect the deployment of my program is observing the mutual obligation between the community and my implementation program group.

Hoggart, L. (2011). Teen Pregnancy in Arkansas. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care, 37:191-193

This article presents the statistics concerning the extent of teen pregnancy in the entire Arkansas area. The authors begin by first indicating that the rate of teen pregnancy is the USA is higher in comparison to most nations in the developed world. They also give the negative consequences of teen pregnancy in and childbirth for the child, the mother and the economy including poor health, poverty and lower levels of educational achievement, unemployment and reduced labor productivity among others. Aside from that, the article outlines the prevalence of teen pregnancy in Arkansas stating that it the leading state in the rates of teen births in the USA, which was 39.5 per 1, 0000 births in relation to 24.2 in the whole country. Philips ranks top 10 among the counties with the highest rates of teen birth with 89 live births per 1, 000.

This article is very relevant to the proposed program because it offers the statistics of teen pregnancy in the region and its effects on the affected parties. This information is important because it will offer important data for the proposal. The ethical consideration in this article that would impact my program is obtaining permission to deploy it in the region.

Katusiime, C. (2011). Preventing teenage pregnancies and abortions: is it attainable? J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care, 37 (3): 190-191.

Even though Katusiime confined her study to London, UK, her findings are applicable everywhere and significantly contribute to the knowledge base in understanding why some teens aim for abortion. The study assesses the reasons that push teenagers into early pregnancies including peer pressure, poverty and lack of knowledge concerning contraceptives. On the other hand, her study examines the factors that influence the use contraceptives or the lack it and the general sexual dynamics among the teens.

This article is relevant in my proposal because it outlines the causes of teen pregnancy and the possible consequences, especially when they undergo an abortion. As a result, it has helped expand my knowledge of the whole issue and will go a long way to me understand the dynamics of sexual encounters among the teens in general before applying it to Phillips county.

One of the ethical concerns in this study that will affect my proposal/program is honesty. I have to present my findings after an honest and well thought-out survey before implementing the program. For this reason, my findings have to be original, but in case I use someones work, I have to acknowledge the author.

Kearney, M.S., and Levine, P.B. (2012). Why Is the Teen Birth Rate in the United States So High and Why Does It Matter? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 26(2): 141-63.

In their bid to explain why the USA has the highest rates of teen pregnancy and childbearing, these researchers illustrate that income inequality through the states in America plays a big role in these numbers. They conclude that coming from a low economic background increases the likelihood of getting pregnant a young age. They also conclude that teen pregnancy reduces the chances of such mothers to make their own economic growth.

This article is relevant to the proposal because it looks at the economic background as a major determinant in teen pregnancy. Phillips County has African Americans as its major population, and this group is often economically marginalized in America. As a result, the article will help define the link between this population, teen pregnancy and economic marginalization. The ethical consideration in this article is respect for the research participants, who may be economically marginalized and, therefore, feel inferior.

Langille, D. B. (2007). Teenage pregnancy: trends, contributing factors and the physician's role. CMAJ, 176(11): 16011602.

In this article, Langille seeks to establish the trends in teenage pregnancy, the factors that contribute to it and the role of the doctor in the whole issue. He notes that teen pregnancy is not only common in the USA but thought the world, but the good news is that it is basically preventable. Langille looks at the rates of teen pregnancies in other countries like Canada, England and Wales among others. He then looks at how physicians can help prevent these cases from influencing the lobby groups and policy makers to create more awareness of the use of contraceptives, and the consequences of teen pregnancies.

This article is very relevant to my study because it analyzes how the situation of teen pregnancy has been changing over time to paint how serious the issue has become. It also focuses on the role of the physicians in curbing the issue, a strategy I will most likely employ in my program. The ethical issue in this article that is likely to affect my program is the conflict of interest that may occur between the stakeholders on who is supposed to deal or fund the teen pregnancy prevention program.

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