Analysis of Drugs with Examples: Moduretic, Zyprexa and Succimer

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Generic name: Amiloride hydrochloride

Brand Name: Moduretic

Indication of Moduretic

1. For treatment, of many heart conditions. This include:

- High blood pressure( hypertension) thus preventing incidences of stroke

- Different kinds of heart failures. This include the Left Ventricular Heart Failure as well as the High Output Failure.

2. For treatment of both acute as well as chronic kidney failure

3. Used in treatment of high body fluids commonly known as edema or hypervolemia

Drug Classification

Moduretic is classified in the class of Potassium Sparing Diuretic and sub class (Epithelial Sodium Chanel) ENac blockers.

Mode of Action: These are diuretics that act by blockage of Epithelial Sodium Channel. By binding to the said Sodium Channels present in the epithelial membrane of the distal tubule of the kidney nephron, these drugs block the reabsorption of Sodium ions. Since the reabsorption of sodium is coupled with water due to osmotic potential, the reabsorption of water at the region is similarly hindered. In most region of the kidney nephron, the reabsorption of sodium ions is coupled with the reabsorption of Potassium ions except at the Epithelial Sodium Channel. These drugs thus do not affect the potassium ion exchange in the kidney tubule hence the name Potassium Sparing Diuretics (Maronde 181)

Side Effects of the ModureticHypokalemia:

- nausea and vomiting;

- dizziness;

- gas;

- diarrhea;

- headache;

- skin rash.

Contraindication and Cautions of ModureticPatient Suffering from Hyperkalemia:

- for patient who happen to be allergic to any other ingredient of Moduretic as well as any sulphonamidePatient with chronic kidney failure and hence are unable to urinate(anuria) as well as those with Addisons disease;

- patients who are taking other potassium-sparing diuretics including spironolactone;

- for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers;

- patients taking other medicines including diabetics, ACE inhibitors, Barbiturates and other NSAIDs like indomethacin.

Evaluation of Moduretic Drug Efficacy

For evaluation of the efficacy of Moduretic drug, the patient on therapy should have a high urine output and show improvement on the following completion of the first dose.


Brand Name: Zyprexa (Elli Lilly & company)

Generic Name: Olanzapine

Drug Classification: Atypical antipsychotic of the subclass Thienobenzodiazepinesof the class Dibenzazepine

Indications of Zyprexa

1. Used mainly in the treatment of psychotic conditions like schizophrenia.

2. Treatment of bipolar disorders likes maniac depression.

Mode of action

Zyprexa is a drug that binds and acts as an antagonist to the Dopamine receptors (D2) present in the brain. It is also known to have an affinity to 5HT2 Serotonin receptors in the brain. This thus prevents the binding of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitter hence reducing incidences of psychosis CITATION Rey11 \p 197 \l 1033 (Reynolds 197)

Side Effects of Zyprexa:

- may cause paradoxical effect like suicidal thoughts;

- impairment of judgment;

- problems with speech and memory;

- dyskinesia;

- weight gain and hypercholesterolemia;

- also known to cause hyperglycemia;

- can cause extreme adverse conditions while taking alcohol;

- contraindication of ZyprexaPatients with psychosis related to dementia;

- diabetic patients;

- patients previously diagnosed with hyperlipidemia;

- pregnant and breastfeeding mothers;

- patients with liver and heart disease;

- evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of Zyprexa.

Evaluation of the use of Zyprexa tends to be challenging since patients seldom finish the required dose. However, patients on olanzapine are expected to take approximately 45 days to be discharged (Reinhold and Earl 260).


Brand Name: SuccimerGeneric

Name: Dimercaptosuccinic acid

Drug Classification: Chelating agents

Medical applications of SuccimerApplied in the treatment of Lead poisoning in children. Also used in arsenic poisoning. Also applied for provocative urine heavy metal test.

Mode of action

Succimer is a chelating agent. It binds with the poisonous heavy metals by chelate bonds thus preventing it from producing its toxic effect upon its consumption (Flora and Pachaura 2145).

Side effects of Succimer;

- having sulfur as a constituent element, it is prone to allergic reactions;

- skin rashes and sore mouth;

- fever and continuous coughing;

- contraindications of SuccimerPatients previously diagnosed with liver or kidney disease;

- lactating mother are not advised not to use this drug since it passes through breast milk;

- thrombocytosis;

Therapeutic evaluation of Succimer Drug substance

Urine lead concentration is used in monitoring efficacy of succimer drug substance. The high urine concentration of Lead ions in the first five days of therapy shows a positive efficacy.

Work Cited

Flora, Swaran and Vidhu Pachaura. "Chelation in metal intoxication." International Journal of Environmental Reserach and Public Heath 7.7 (2010): 2745-2788.

Maronde, Roberts. Topics in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Springer Science and Business Media, 2012.

Reinhold, Jennifer and Grace Earl. Clinical Therapeutics Primer: Link To The Evidence For the Ambulatory Care Pharmacist. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2012.

Reynolds, Gavin. "Receptor mechanisms of antipsychotic drugs action in bipolar disorders- focus on asenapine." Therapeutic Advances in Pharmacology (2011): 197-204.

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