Chapter 1: Research Overview1.1 Introduction
Over the years, a notable trend involving an increase in the rate of crime in developed countries has characterized the global dimension. The evaluation of the global criminal justice data suggests that in the past two decades most countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States have been associated with an increase in crime emanating from the distortions within the growth and development structure (House of Commons, 2007; Mauer, 2000). Such occurrences have changed the orientation of the social systems where the dimensions such as income distribution, family structure, the rate of employment, and consumer purchasing power have been affected. With most of the urban regions experiencing a reduction in manufacturing processes and a significant increase in unemployment, pressure is mounting on the social life, which encourages an increase in crime rate in most countries (Chang and Wu, 2012).
Moreover, the existence of socioeconomic imbalance has prompted the growth in the gap between the wealthy and the have-nots. Such a scenario has been exhibited in the race and class orientations, which encourage the diversity in data relating to criminal justice in multi-ethnic states with stable economies. For example, the housing segregation, over the years, has been the baseline of a notable life difficulty among the Black people in the United States and the United Kingdom (House of Commons, 2007).
Currently, the shifts in criminal justice data indicate a correlation between young blacks and rate of crime in the leading states across the country, which has opened a new dimension to social research and assessments relating to these concerns (House of Commons, 2007). Therefore, racial disparity within the global criminal justice system is an area that requires critical analysis to determine the nature of the transformation, in particular among the Black people (Goddard, 2003). This review of the literature aims to explore why young black people become known to the criminal justice system in the UK.
1.2 Research BackgroundThe criminal justice system plays a critical role in determining the nature of representation of the cases based on gender, age, and race. The system procedure are essential when executing sentences or defining the magnitude of the offence, which can be attached to a characteristic of the offenders based on age factor or race and gender. In developed states, such data are essential in making decision relevant when transformational mitigation measures are needed in the social setup. Control factors such as age and race have been fundamental in managing the rate of crime across the United States and the United Kingdom (House of Commons, 2007).
In countries with a significant percentage of the Black population, perceptions such as discrimination and over representations have characterized the criminal justice system. The lack of equality and fairness within the legal structure may encourage or depict skewness in justice (Mauer, 2000). Such inclinations encourage an increase in the rate of crime for the associated countries. Worth noting is that the tendency of the young people to be involved in criminal activities in multi-ethnic states such as the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States is very high, which require a comprehensive analysis to determine the associated trends and shifts for effective corrective measures (Mauer, 2000).
Moreover, the impact of criminal justice data, regarding representation, is equally essential when ethnic, age, and gender factors are incorporated where a similar reverence as that associated with education, health, employment, and housing is exhibited. In this regard, a trend worth investigating has been noted in line with the young black populations in developed states. Critics note the existence of two dimensions associated with the criminal justice representations among the young. First, the idea of the Blacks being victimised and linked to criminal activities is widely spread. Furthermore, the capacity of the legal system to offer equality and exercise freedom at a lower level within social setup is understood to have an element of biases. Besides, the notion of increased supervision for the young Blacks is a common phenomenon in developed states with a significant number of Black populations (Mauer, 2000; Gill, 2009). The perceptions and ethnic inclinations depict the nature of the changing criminal justice representation that links the young Blacks to crime tendency.
Finally, the call for the assessment of the policy implications in countries such as the United States associated with criminal justice systems to determine necessary measures indicates possible concerns from stakeholders. Moreover, the high level of controlled criminal justice activities in the United Kingdom is another hallmark of that ascertains the tendency; however, a deeper analysis of the specific contributing factors, the influence of policy, and the effect on social perception within the ethnic divide is required (House of Commons, 2007). Therefore, this paper is a basis for the evaluation of the associated literature to depict the current situation that links the young Blacks in the United Kingdom and criminal justice in the country.
Over the years, scholars have assessed the relationship between criminal justice and Black people based on ethnic composition (Kalunta and Ejiogu, 2012). The objective of the previously conducted studies has been centered on the correlation between overrepresentation of the Black people in criminal justice processes. On the flipside, some studies have examined the interplay of ethnic background with criminal activities. In the United States, the Department of Criminal Justice report has indicated that over 49% of prison inmates are Blacks compared to the 13% overall population composition. About 32% of the Black people aged between 15 and 29 are under criminal justice supervision, which occur in various forms such as Stop and Search (Rosich, 2007). The existence of the diversity in representation is an indicator of existing factors that contribute to the noted data that mostly include the Blacks.
The United States and the United Kingdom share most of the trends in economic, political, and social affairs and dimensions. The previous assessments regarding young Black people and crime overrepresentation indicated a significant correlation, which hints the expected results in the United Kingdom. Therefore, a perspective associating the Black people and crime has been exhibited in the United Kingdom (UK) as reported by the House of Common Committee on Home Affairs in the 2006/2007 Volume I publication. The existence of such reports justifies this study since it is clear that the data available depict a significant relationship; however, a critical assessment of the available information and evidence is needed.
1.4 Research Questions and ObjectivesThe research questions, as well as the objective of the study, forms the core of the survey process in any social research. In this case, the study is based on the recent concerns regarding young Black people and the criminal justice system? in the UK. Therefore, the dissertation examines several dimensions related to the topic of the study to achieve a clear understanding of the scenario regarding this matter. The following research questions formed the basis of the survey.
Q1: What statistical data and analysis relate to young Blacks and criminal justice in the United Kingdom?
Q2: What contributing factors related to young Blacks becoming known for criminal justice in the United Kingdom?
Q3: What notable implications as well as mitigation measures have been associated with young Blacks becoming known for criminal justice in the United Kingdom?
Q4: What recommendations are necessary for effective management of the perspective and tendency associated with young Blacks being known for criminal justice?
The research questions formed the four primary objectives of the study where the scope and schedule of the research process followed the outlined goals. Therefore, the study was carried out to determine the statistical data and analysis relating to young Blacks and criminal justice in the United Kingdom. Through literature review, the researcher was able to highlight the contributing factors relating to young Blacks becoming known for criminal justice in the United Kingdom. Moreover, the focus of the study was also to assess the implications as well as mitigation measures associated with young Blacks becoming known for criminal justice in the United Kingdom. Furthermore, the research was designed to establish recommendations necessary for effective management of the perspective and tendency associated with young Blacks being known for criminal justice. By achieving these objectives, the study presented how the young Black people in the country are overrepresented in the criminal justice system.
1.5 Significance of the ResearchThe process of mitigating social-based problems requires a comprehensive analysis of the circumstances to determine the extent of the challenge, which is the baseline for social administration (Rwomire, 2011). Such a method depends on the data collected to ascertain the magnitude of the social issue to inform the stakeholders appropriately. This study is designed review the reasons and causes relating to the tendency of the young Blacks being known for criminal justice in the United Kingdom. The literature-based research is essential because there is a need for a clear understanding of the matter under investigation to inform decision processes, policy formulation, and government intervention in relation to criminal justice matters. The literature assessment includes the causes relating to the overrepresentation of the young Black people in the United Kingdom on criminal justice affairs, which is essential in making necessary and sustainable intervention at the national level. Furthermore, the results of the dissertation will enhance the existing knowledge in line with the topic of the study by integrating the information collected as well as the current literature to provide a concrete conclusion. The comparison of the consulted literatures will provide a clear picture regarding the extent to which the concept of overrepresentation in criminal justice is depicted among young Black people. Such achievements will assist in strategic decision-making processes to enhance efficiency of evidence-based practice.
1.7 Overview of chapters
The first chapter of the dissertation includes the introduction of the concepts associated with young Blacks and criminal justice. The section contains the basic information that lays the foundation for the study by looking at the concept of the representation of the young Blacks in line with the criminal justice. On the justification of the survey, the need for carrying out the research is highlighted. Furthermore, the first chapter outlines the research questions and objectives. In this section, the significance of the study has also been covered.
The second chapter entails the research methodology where the approach used in the study is extensively examined. The section discusses the systematic literature review technique as adopted in this project. However, a foundational and critical approach has been considered, which includes the discussion of the suitability of the method as applied to the survey. The section also compares and contrasts literature review to empirical research and meta-analysis. The part also describes the criteria that were used to select the data sources and specific data characteristics to be employed in the study under the search criteria, as well as the ethical considerations.
The chapter forms the third section of the paper, which includes the co...
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