The History of Bullying began in the 1530s. In its most basic aspects, bullying involved two people, the bullies, and the victim. The bullies abused the victims through various physical and other means so as to gain a sense of power and superiority (Li, 2006). The bullying also involved direct actions as hitting, verbal face to-face assaults and indirect gossip and rumors. The bullying affects the human common and instinctual desire to survive. The survival gets directly associated with competition because of the limited natural resources and many species on the planet (Leary et.al, 2003). Over the many past years, there has been a consistent drive and motive to overcome various obstacles and out-perform others. The survival instinct, alongside a competitive environment, has continued to remain the same despite the evolution of the human race. The competitive forces have continued to be felt over the social, economic and educational realms (Klomek et.al, 2008).
Bullying in schools is connected to Suicide and other high-risk behaviors among school-aged children (Smokowski & Kopasz, 2005). Since its founding as a country, American society has always been engrained in bullying. Bullying bred from the competitive social hierarchy and capitalistic economy and had remained through the years as an issue of key relevance. Today, the world is experiencing other forms of bullying as Technological bullying, also referred to as cyber bullying, which has increasingly led to the expansion of the problems of bullying (Seals & Young 2003).The cyber bullying has become highly elusive with more complex networks. Various significant analysis of different statistical research, law cases, case studies and news articles have been conducted to establish a clear understanding of the issue of bullying and to develop the workable preventative measures (Nansel et.al,2001). This paper looks at Bullying in schools and connection to Suicide and other high-risk behaviors among school-aged Children.
There are various major theories of bullying in schools and its connection to Suicide and other high-risk behaviors among school-aged children. The first is the biosocial theory which helps in the understanding of various personality functioning and the borderline personality disorder developments (Kim & Leventhal, 2008). This theory is associated with self-harmful behavior and also shows the causes of bullying in schools and its connection to Suicide and other high-risk behaviors among school-aged children (Kaltiala-Heino et.al, 2000).This theory shows how individuals were positing borderline personality disorders develop much emotion regulation hence are affected in different ways by bullying. Certain individuals get predisposed biologically to becoming more vulnerable emotionally due to poor skills for regulation of emotion (Hinduja & Patchin 2010).The emotion regulation system challenges get exacerbated by particular environmental circumstances, as the invalidation of emotional environments. It is often posited that such atmospheres lead to inadequate skill development and learning of ways to label, tolerate and regulate strong emotions that would consequently result into suicides among the bullying victims. Moreover, the theory is a transactional model that incorporates an emphasis on the significance of relationships between people and validation of emotional atmosphere (Haynie et.al, 2001).
The other theory that also explains about bullying in schools and its connection to Suicide and other high-risk behaviors among school-aged children is Durkheims theory. In regards to this theory, it was argued that the school aged girls, unlike boys, were 60% more likely to report suicidal behavior and suicide attempt due to bullying. They would experience high victimization levels, more social isolation, and less school attachment (Goodenow et.al, 2006). Despite the extents of family cohesion being conceptualized as a social integration form , other community based longitudinal studies would also provide primary support. For instance, there have been various arguments about the negative relationship between suicidal behavior and suicide attempts family cohesion and suicide attempts (Schneider et.al, 2012). There are also arguments that lack of close friends and social isolation were associated with the subsequent suicide attempts. The reports also indicated that the school aged children who reported suicide attempts more likely lacked the availability of the family network (Flannery et.al, 2004). There is various set of evidence for the significance of social isolation and integration to the understanding of school-aged children suicide and suicidal behavior as a result of bullying. According to the extensive longitudinal study by the Health representatives worldwide, peer social isolation and intransitive friendships are key indicators and predictors of the suicidal ideation for girls. Moreover, tight school community network has been protective against boys suicide attempts (Fekkes et.al, 2006).
Based on the various literature review on bullying in schools and its connection to Suicide and other high-risk behaviors among school-aged children, there are different emerging issues (Undheim& Sund, 2010).First, the use of theoretical data based and driven model of bullying prevention, practitioners and education researchers would significantly reduce perceptions that support bullying and attitudes and create sustainable and meaningful behavior change (Due et.al, 2005). The other emerging issue is that there is a primary need for theoretically driven studies to enhance clear testing of hypothesis, coherent findings integration and determination of forward research steps (Tokunaga, 2010). Such research studies would benefit from the approach of data analysis which would address the interaction of social factors with each other and establish of risk factors to lower or elevate the sociality risks, address potential complex relationships among the variables that are pertinent theoretically( Dake et.al ,2003).
There are various gaps in the study review on bullying in schools and its connection to Suicide and other high-risk behaviors among school-aged children. The first is the missing statistics on the rate of which bullying in schools has led to suicide and other high-risk behaviors among the school-aged children (Carney, 2000). Secondly, the previous studies have only investigated the association between bullying behaviors and individual characteristics as gender, age, psychosocial problems, direct family and peer relations and the school atmosphere leaving a gap of non-established broad level factors associated with the bullying behavior among the school-aged children such as neighborhood cultural and environmental influences (Birkett et.al,2009).There is also a gap in the understanding of the ecological system levels and its influence and inhibitions on bullying and peer victimization in school-aged children (Swearer et.al,2001).This is because effective bullying intervention and prevention strategies require targeting the multiple contexts which would be established through the clear understanding of the system levels (Baldry & Winkel, 2003).
I have learned various concepts so far. My first lesson is that peer victimization and bullying among school-aged children are main social problems that affect the children globally. Secondly, the adverse consequences of peer victimization and bullying and have generated major attention from many educators, researchers, school officials, practitioners and lawmakers in recent years. The other lesson I have got is that the concerns over suicidal behavior and suicide attributed to bullying and peer victimization and school violence have led to a various assessment of the risk factors associated with the bullying and its impact on the school aged children.
There are certain unclear concepts from the various case studies reviewed. The studies reviewed do not address the feelings of invalidating emotional environments and burdensomeness directly. Moreover, there is also no clear arguments as whether the perception of low social support would be reflective of the absence of supportive validations due to the experience of distress and emotional pain (Arseneault et.al, 2010). Moreover, it is also not clear as to whether; the only victims of bullying and peer victimization who commit suicide or involve in high-risk behaviors are only school age children (Rigby & Slee, 1999). It is also not clear as whether other forms of abuse are involved in the process of bullying as sexual and physical abuse which would be powerful indicators of the invalidating emotional atmospheres (Alikasifoglu et.al, 2007).
The new knowledge gained through the various study reviews relates to what I have learned previously, and to my theories about how the world works in various ways. The knowledge has been a fundamental basis for my in-depth understanding the various concepts of bullying in schools and its connection to Suicide and other high-risk behaviors among school-aged children. The knowledge has also opened up my world view through the dynamics of diverse theories that form the foundation of understanding the life social issues. I have also adapted my theories in light of new evidence in various ways. I have adapted the various new theory ideologies as key to offering me the most primary understanding of major factors that characterize individuals at increased suicide risks as the feeling of burdensomeness, sense of isolation, and learned the ability to engage in self-harmful behaviors. This is because the theories would also form a significant basis for my in-depth empirical study into the bullying in schools and its connection to Suicide and other high-risk behaviors among school-aged children.
I still need to know various concepts. I still need to establish more understanding of the underlying factors of bullying as the invalidation of emotional environments and feelings of burdensomeness. I still also need to seek for an understanding of how such factors would influence the bullying in schools and its connection to Suicide and other high-risk behaviors among school-aged children. I need to understand clearly how the concepts of various perception of social support and their reflection on the absence of supportive validation when experiencing emotional distress and pain due to bullying. Moreover, I still would seek to understand the various ways in bullying in schools and its connection to Suicide and other high-risk behaviors among school-aged children would be prevented.
Bullying in schools is connected to Suicide and other high-risk behaviors among school-aged children. The History of Bullying began in the 1530s. In its most basic aspects, bullying involved two people, the bullies, and the victim. There are various major theories of bullying in schools and its connection to Suicide and other high-risk behaviors among school-aged children as the biosocial and the Durkheims theory which helps in the understanding of various personality functioning. Based on the various literature reviews on bullying in schools and its connection to Suicide and other high-risk behaviors among school-aged children, there are different emerging issues and various gaps in the study review on bullying in schools and its connection to Suicide and other high-risk behaviors among school-aged children. I have learned various concepts so far and identified certain unclear concepts from the different case studies reviewed. The new knowledge gained through the various study reviews also relates to what I have learned previously, and to...
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