Security and Risk Management Research

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1) Subject Area: (for example, the penal system) Security and Risk Management

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2) Working Title: (this can be changed later) How effective and realistic is the security risk assessment methodology used in International Organizations to ensure the security and safety of its personnel, assets and operations ?

3) Brief Synopsis: (no more than four lines) Many international organizations operate in a variety of countries in different security environments. When managing their security, many of these internationall organizations base their security management on a Security Risk Assessment methodology where threats categories are in their guidelines. This research will examine the effectiveness and practicality of risk assessment methodologies used in some international organizations and if this methodology enables credible assessment of security risks and also if it considers all possible internal and external security threats. The ability of these systems to contemplate internal and external threats is analyzed.

4) Aims of the Research:

1. To examine the effectiveness and credibility of the security risk assessment methodology used by some international organizations within their security management framework.

2. To assess if this current security management system is appropriate for the Organizations security and safety needs and if it enables a credible security risk assessment encompassing both internal and external threats.

3. To examine if the security risk assessment methodology used in some international organizations can become more effective by improving the methodology of risks identification while incorporating both the internal and external threats in various environments.

5) Area of interest and problem to be studied: What are you intending to study? In this section it would be useful if you also identified a research question, or series of questions, to accompany the outline of your research topic and the problem it presents. The area of interest in this research proposal is the security management system used in some international organizations; the security risk assessment methodology and the guidelines provided to complete it to ensure the security and safety of their staff, assets and operation. Most of the international organizationinternational organizations use similar Security Risk Assessment (SRA) methodology and guidelines which are based on the UN security system methodologies, where their SRA is developed based on structured threats assessment or otherwise called system -based approach used for managing their respective security risks. This research proposal intends to examine the efficiency of this system approach or methodology by answering to the question How effective and realistic is the security risk assessment methodology used in International Organizations to ensure the security and safety of its personnel, assets and operations ?

In the the proposed research it is expected to examine carefully the current guidelines and SRA methodologies employed by some organizations such as UN, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and analyseanalyze each element thereof. As mentioned previously the current security system used by the organization is a system based one, where the security threat categories are fixed such as armed conflict, terrorism, crime, civil unrest and hazards/infrastructure threats. Such a system leaves a gabp which leads to a series of questions while contributing to the main question of this research, such as:

- Are these predetermined security threats match the environment of each country where the organization operates?

- Do the identified risks encompass all the security needs of the organization?

- How is the current security management system perceived in the Organization?

- What systems have the Organization in place to deal with internal and external threats and do they satisfy the Organizations needs?

- Does the Organization have sufficient resources and capacities to manage the risks?

- Does the current approach represent the most effective way of security management system?

- Can the current security system and SRA methodologies be improved and become more efficient in responding to the organizations need?

However, the intention is not to answer in depth all these questions, rather answers will focus and contribute to the main research question. While these question pose the greatest link to the security concerns being addressed by this paper, their answers will only be persuasive in the argument the paper intends to make. An in-depth answer to these questions only contributes to the research questions.

6) Locating the problem in the literature: What sources will you use? What debates and issues do you propose to address? How do these relate to course materials?

Many organizations operating in various conflict or post conflict countries have developed their own security management system following or adapting the UN security system (Humphreys, 2011). This system was also adapted recently by the Organization for Security Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) aiming to enhance the security and safety of its personnel operating in the field missions (Caballero, 2009). This approach is a centralized standards driven security or otherwise called system-based security approach., the review is intended to determine both internal and external security factors. As such, security concerns both at the headquarter level and at the ground sites level will be assessed. This is because the headquarters are responsible for ensuring the drafting of security and safety measures, while the field operations are responsible for the implementation of the same. which in the initial literature reviewed, where identified some different perspectives on the efficiency of this methodology.

Bollettiono (2008) noted in his research that beside the increased efforts of UN to enhance its security management system and employing common security standards, there isare a growing number of casualties among the humanitarian organization personnel operationg in the field. He argued that staff security require a common professional approach based on sound security expertise adapted to meet the operational need of the humanitarian organizations (Bollettiono, 2008). The field operations were analyzed in this paper. The methodology used in this research was a literature review and the authors own experience of designing UN field security reporting. However, his research is only focused on the improvement of the current security system based on internal security system of reporting used by the UN and covers only the physical security aspect of the Organization, while excluding inexternal threats or any other staff safety issues. Furthermore, there was no proper consideration of external factors. Additionally, opinions of other field security professionals and staff was never considered in his research paper. This paper thus brought out the role of the staff in ensuring that there was sufficient consideration of stakeholder interests (namely, employees) in catering for security concerns.

In a similar research conducted by Bruderlein and Gassmann (2006) it was also noted that increased security threats, especially in conflict areas led to the UN through necessity being robust in its security management system. They rightly pointed out two schools of thought; the first system based security approach or the centralization of standards-driven security management and the second approach introduced was the community-based security approach, where communities were seems as guarantors of staff security (McDaniel, Sen, & Spatschek, 2006). The methodologies used in this research were wider than in previous research and beside an academic literature review, it included surveys and observations. The strength of this research is that it pointed out the inefficiency of the current system used by the UN and highlighted the need of field based security management. However, the research did not consider the internal security threats and safety of the staff and it does not clearly provide effective instruments to improve field security or provide for an integrated security approach.

Van Brabant (1998) also notated the increased risks for the that humanitarian organizations, especially in conflict areas, have. and concludedit was concluded that an improved security management system for the aid workers can be achieved by a collaborative work with the aid workers, policy makers and military analysts. Such organizations are often similar to the UN in their provision of relief services to such countries. In addition and from an, involvements in a number of initiatives to collect and and analyze data, formulate policies and provide training on security could yield information on security needs. The methodology used in this research was mainly based on the authors experience and observations as well as literature review. Although, this research establishes an important element of security management, in the exchange of security information among organizations, it was only based on authors experience and it does not provide any specific method on assessing and managing the security risks. Moreover, and it is focused on the physical safety of the workers in the war-areas as opposed to focusing on the bigger picture, which is an integrated approach between planning and execution of sound security plans. only the physical security aspect and overlooks the full picture of an effective integrated security management model.

Although, the previous literature review was focused on UN and other humanitarian organizations, their ways of operation and management are quite similar with the one of the OSCE model. Therefore, going through this literature review increases ones knowledge of intended research topics and makes more evident the necessity of a realistic more securitycomprehensive security risk assessment methodology. and theThe requirements for an integrated security management approach are also clearly brought out. Other issues that of consideration for this research intends to debate isare; country based security risk assessment, while comparing it with the system based or standardized approach, which is currently implemented by the UN Organization. Although, the country based approach was also mentioned by Bruderlein and Gassmann (2006), this research will discuss it more broadly based on field experience of security professionals. Other issues that will be addressed in this research will establish if all risks are realistically identified and managed with the current approach, while focusing not only in the security risks but also the safety issues. The research intends to introduce an integrated and realistic approach on the methodology of conducting a security and safety risk assessment and effective ways of managing risks.

The topics intended to be discussed in this research are very much related to many course materials. However, as the risk assessment methodology will be in the focus of this research some of the main course materials used in this research will be from module two and four. When discussing internal threats in this research, the course materials covering managing security in the work place will be very helpuseful. Additionally, when developing and examining the theories on risk and methodologies of risk assessment the course materials on Managing Risks and Security will be duly referred. Additionally, the Research Methods materials will have a significant impact on conducted reliable research, which will contribute to the research topic. The intention in this case is to make a distinction between...

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