Regulation of Spermatogenesis

2021-05-12 07:54:52
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Spermatogenesis regulation is core in the line of medicine and social structure since it determines the generation of an organism in reproduction thus perpetuating the existence of living organisms. For the process of spermatogenesis to take place the male productive parts must be in the right biological structure to enable the production of the various hormones that are responsible for initiating the reproduction process. Also, psychological, histo-chemical, endocrinal and environmental factors are necessary for the whole process of spermatogenesis. The aim of spermatogenesis regulation is to improve the viability of the offspring. When the regulation of sperms is affected the reproductive system initiates various measures to improve the viability of the offspring. The process entirely depends on the presence of testosterone hormones in the testis. When testosterone hormones are absent, the process does not go past the meiosis stage of formation.

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Spermatogenesis concerns itself with the creation of male gametes from the spermatozoa which can fertilize the female gametes during conception to produce a zygote; sexual production involves two gametes both contributing half set of chromosomes (haploid), resulting in the formation of diploid. Spermatogenesis takes place on the male reproductive system, initially in the testes then proceeds to the epididymis then the gametes are stored and readied for ejaculation. Male gametes require 10-80 c for the formation of a viable offspring which is markedly lower than the average body temperature. Spermatogenesis provides cell multiplication and cell differentiation. The processes are localized in two major morphological structures, the vascularized Leydig cells of the interstitium and the vascularized seminiferous tubules. Testes development is an essential aspect of sperm formation and regulation. The differentiation of cells is, and development of testicles as determined by various predisposing factors categorized as morphological, physiological, endocrinological, histochemical and biochemical.

Morphological factors

Morphological developments include the formation of the seminiferous cords which differentiate into seminiferous tubules during puberty. Seminiferous tubules constitute of at least75 % testicular mass in adult because of continuous cell multiplication. The lining of seminiferous epithelium is unique in the complexity of its arrangement which consists of supporting somatic cells, a proliferating population of germ cells that are displaced centripetally from the spermatogonia to the base of spermatozoa in the central compartment. The spermatogonia cells differentiate through meiosis to form sperm cells. The morphological factors depend on the body changes as a result attaining the stage of puberty. These changes may be offer favorable or unfavorable climate for the development of the organs responsible for the production of male gonads.

Hormonal aspects

Testes mature to perform hormonal functions which involve the production of testosterone and production of spermatozoa in an adult. Hormonal influence varies among species. However, in male species spermatogenesis occurs at puberty due to the interactions of the Leydig cells, hypothalamus, and the pituitary glands. If the pituitary gland is removed, the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone take charge. Production of testosterone majorly depends on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal axis. Axis is the point of interaction between the Pituitary gland, Hypothalamus, and male gonads. The mentioned Axis significant in development and regulation of the aging in animals Hypothalamus glands is responsible for the secretion of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone, which is expressing whereas the interior of the pituitary gland engages in the production of the gonads which in turn produce estrogen in marginal amounts. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) stimulate the interstitial cells that are found in the testes to produce testosterone hormones. Testosterone hormone is a primary player in the regulation process of spermatogenesis

Biological aspects

Testosterone causes physiological and psychological changes since it is the hormone responsible for the activation of Sertoli cells. The Sertoli cells, in turn, promote the formation of spermatogonia, maintenance of muscle tropism, regulation of physical energy, cognitive and acute Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) response to dominance challenge, regulation of the amount of thromboxane A2 receptors that are present on megakaryocytes and platelets. The sex organs of the early human embryo are promoted by testosterone which is responsible for sexual differentiation in the embryo begins producing testosterone in the seventh week of development. .The mentioned Pre-peripubertal effects are observable at the end of childhood. The noticeable effects include bone maturation, increased oiliness of the skin, body odors and hair on the face. At puberty, testosterone triggers maturation of the reproductive organs and development of sexual characteristics.

Spermatogenesis regulation can be achieved by regulation of blood flow and the position of the cremaster muscle and the dartos since the seminiferous epithelium is sensitive to high temperature. The dartos regulates the temperature of the testicle through the expansion and contraction of the scrotal skin. The contraction of scrotal skin promotes heat while development of the scrotal skin encourages cooling of the testicles. The function of the cremaster muscle is to lower or raise the testes so as to regulate the temperature of the scrotum to optimal conditions for spermatogenesis and the survival of the of the spermatozoa. It is important to note that cremaster muscle works in collaboration with the dartos to provide these favorable conditions for the process of spermatogenesis to occur. Also, spermatogenesis regulation can be achieved by injecting ICSH and FSH, which are primary hormones which affect spermatogenesis.

The standard level of testosterone provides the necessary urge to have sex, enormous energy, better sleep, and enjoyment while exercising. Low testosterone can be caused by factors such as a tumor on the pituitary gland, problems on the testicles, infections, overweight, and infliction of injuries on the testicles. The factors mentioned earlier can cause testosterone to drop below the average level thus affecting the quality of spermatozoa. However, low testosterone can be boosted by a testosterone replacement therapy (TRT).Insufficient androgen also may lead to failure to achieve the full reproductive capacity of an individual. In such circumstances, TRT can be administered though increasing the level of testosterone though it is hazardous since it risks the prostate glands. Prostate glands enlarge thus be in danger of prostate cancer, cardiovascular problems like heart attack and stroke, softening of the testicles, increased snoring and sleep apnea.

Environmental/lifestyle influence on spermatogenesis

Andrology as the branch of medicine deals with the study of reproductive functions of the males under pathological and physical conditions. Evidence for declining sperm count in recent decades indicates environment /lifestyle impact on spermatogenesis. .Some environmental factor such as pesticides, food additives, polychlorinated biphenyls, exhaust fumes. The combustion products have adverse effects on testicles. Also, lifestyle factors such as obesity, smoking and diabetes have been found to affect perinatal and adult testes. The mentioned conditions affect the temperature of the body. High environmental temperature inhibits abnormal production of the male gametes since the production is affected thus disrupting the fertilization since the spermatozoa will be of low quality.

Psychological influence

Modification of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoids occupy an important part of the formation of spermatozoa. An upsurge in the levels of glucocorticoids leads to mobilization of amino acids, promotion of gluconeogenesis and stimulation of fats which are broken down to maintain glucose which helps to combat stress. Glucocorticoids affect the Gonadal function of the secretion of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone, which decreases the synthesis of the hypothalamus. In the pituitary gland, it leads to the production of LH and FSH and modulate gametes have huge implication implications on the fertility of an individual. In the adrenal cortex, glucocorticoids provide energy in the situation of a fight or flight. Research indicates that social stress a capable of inhibiting the normal production of testosterone thus interfering with the process of spermatogenesis. Change in hormones influences the new behavioral response depending on the environment. The hormonal levels affect the plasma concentration of both Testosterone and Luteinizing Hormone in the absence of competing males.

In conclusion, the process of spermatogenesis is regulated by several factors. Environmental factors pose adverse health conditions that inhibit the proper function of the body organs that trigger spermatogenesis. Biological factors influence the secretion of the appropriate chemical substances that are responsible for the formation of spermatozoa. For inhibition of the secretion of testosterone poses adverse effects on the production of the spermatozoa. Hormonal factors entail the series of interplays between the various chemicals to simulate the production of spermatozoa. Morphological aspects represent the growth and development aspects of a male child that determine the production of the male characteristics especially after attaining the puberty stage. Moreover, psychological factors affect the functioning of the nervous system thereby preventing effective communication within the body.

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