What is Kant's response to Hume's conclusions in metaphysics and epistemology?
In responding to Humes conclusions in Prolegomena concerning metaphysics and epistemology, Kant notes that there has been no event that was very decisive for the fate of science as the attack that Hume himself launched on science. In fact, Kant thinks that Humes main procession and argument was based on the link of cause and effect. Later Kant provides a solution to Humes problem. Kant, in fact, proceeds to maintain that he has to remove the Humean doubt right from the bottom to up. Kant further proposes that there has to be a trial with Humes problematic concept, the concept that is widely acknowledged and known to be the concept of cause.
What is Kant's goal in his ethics? Why must he give a good explanation for our moral reasoning beyond our sentiments (emotions)?
According to the reading, the goal of Kant in ethics is to achieve good will. Expounding on the issue of having a moral reasoning beyond the emotions helps to differentiate his explanations to the rest. What is his concept of the Good Will?
According to Kant, good will is the only thing that is known to be good without any form of limitation. By saying this, Kant does not imply that it is the only thing that is known to be good. This is affirmed when he proceeds to list and then group the items whose goodness do not have any limitation. What Kant means, in this case, is that anything that is known as good will is in wholesome good and in no way at all known to be bad. The explanation that Kant provides is that the good will is the only good thing that its level of goodness is unaffected or never reduced by any form of combination with other things. In talking of combination of any other thing, the evil things that may be present or in conjunction are not considered.
As Kant notes, a good will in most cases fail to meet the end that it is meant to. This means that its own proper goodness is not reduced by the system failure, or even by the bad results that are likely to flow from it. This is a position that is opposite of the known wishes. In any case, the good will does not achieve anything even if it is combined with any kind of evil, it is likely to shine just as a jewel. However, Kant is not clear whether on entirety an individual need to go for the combination of a good will with any form of bad consequences. Nonetheless, he is of the opinion that the goodness of the good will is never reduced by any of this types of combinations while the goodness of all other goods is diminished. Therefore, when all the other goods are scarce in regards to their goodness by their combination with bad things, the goodness of the good will remains unique amongst the different goods that are not compromised by such existing combinations.
Hypothetical imperatives discuss the things that an individual has to do for them to realize a given objective. Therefore, it infers to the practicability of an action if one wishes to do or possibly wishes to do. For instance, if one has to pass exams, then they have to read smart.
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