An experiment is any test or action that is performed under controlled conditions with an aim of justifying a certain phenomenon scientifically. By doing this, there is a possibility of drawing a valid conclusion from the test as the results produced from the test can be vindicated. All experiments are done to produce a scientific prove and poses similar characteristics. These characteristics are put into place so that by the end of the experiment, they can be proved to be correct or not (Tapper, 2004, pg61).For any scientific action or item, there must be observation and hypothesis made about it. Whatever we see might not be exactly as what experimental results can produce. By having a hypothesis on a scientific project, we give our views about it which are later proved to be true or false by the experiments conducted (Desroches,2006,pg79). Observation in an experiment is a key factor as its through observing what we can draw conclusions from an experiment and interpret the results.
All experiments are usually after testing theories that are not scientifically proved. By testing these theories, scientists can estimate errors that were made while designing the hypothesis and they can understand the assumptions that were made while giving the theories. Most scientists believe what they see than what they hear so unless they test what is said, they remain rigid with what they know (Radder,2003,pg48).
It is hard for a scientist to guess why there is the occurrence of a phenomenon in life and why does it happen the way it happens. To clear the doubt, they predict why the phenomenon happens so that they can test it in direct conditions and this creates room for learning more of the occurrence. The phenomena are put in different experimental tests and from them, scientists get to understand some of the requirements of the phenomena and come up with justified reasons why it is the way it is (Tapper,2004,pg73).
After the experiments are done, scientists document their results. It the theory they were trying to prove does not correspond to their results, they rewrite it in such a way it gives a clear explanation of a phenomenon. Sometimes some of the experiments done vary with either of the theories suggested. In such case, the results are not considered. Results from all experiment are checked more than once before they are analyzed, and once they are regarded correct, they are presented regarding graphs and tables.
After the hypothesis is put into an experiment and results obtained, meaningful conclusions are drawn from the experiment. This is done after the results of the experiment are interpreted together with all the patterns available. Laws are later made to support the experiment as all scientific experiments are meant to explain why things function in a certain manner and how they perform the function (Desroches, 2006,pg69).
Initially, scientist formed questions and later tested them to learn more about them. This method was good by that time but in the 20th generation and the current method being used is that of a hypothesis-deductive method whereby the researcher develops a hypothesis on how a phenomenon behaves that way and from that, he puts it into a test and gets the results. Its through the results that the person justifies the hypothesis is true or false. The proposed approach for scientific experiment follows a sequence of steps which include:
First, make an observation and ensure that they are objective not a case where you use a subject that cannot be accessed by others for verification. After observing events that have previously occurred, draw hypotheses whereby you predict the results to be expected from the experiment. After preparing a hypothesis, predict whether your hypothesis will be true or false after the experiment.
Conduct the experiment after the prediction to get the results that will either comply with your hypotheses or go against it. Make an analysis of the results and finally, interpret the results as you generate conclusion to support your experiment. Producing report of the study is a major key in scientific studies as the findings of the study may be needed by another scientist to further their studies (Desroches,2006,pg41).
Before conducting an experiment, having a control of the expected results is a necessity as one can budget on the resources required to accomplish the study. These controls may be inadequate to give an image of the expected results, or hypothesis may be misstated or incomplete hence wrong deductions from the experiment.
Experiments regarding live specimen are unethical as sometimes they interfere with the normal functionality of the specimen. Also, sometimes it is difficult to control all the variables used in the experiment which ends up not giving the required results. Since the experiment is not conducted by a single person regarding data collection, analysis and interpretation, errors are expected as not all of them have knowledge of that field (Radder, 2003,pg 64).
In conclusion, scientists have completely adopted this method of the experiment as a way of testing other people theories and also coming up with their own. It is the only method that gives evidence of a phenomenon or occurrence. The proposed approach has given a format of how the experiment should be conducted to give correct findings if at all the unresolved issue are resolved.
Desroches, Dennis. 2006. Francis Bacon and the limits of scientific knowledge. London: Continuum
Radder, Hans. 2003. The philosophy of scientific experimentation. Pittsburgh, Pa: University of Pittsburgh Press
Taper, Mark L., and Subhash Lele. 2004. The nature of scientific evidence statistical, philosophical, and empirical considerations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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