The concept on reliability and validity regarding this study is difficult to determine since it entails social science thus it is comprised of human behavior and feelings. Factors such as fear, greed, and hatred may affect the conclusion of this research. Basically, the emotional and psychological aspect of human beings and the level of satisfaction will determine the studys conclusion. The Maslows Hierarchy of Needs explains what motivates humans to achieve a certain need (Robert, 2013). A studys validity is the extent to which a studys measurement and conclusion can be well-founded and reflects the reality of the world (Miriam, 2013). To improve the studys validity the researcher focused on creating the questionnaire cautiously by concentrating on the awareness, articulateness, and simplicity of the questions. The questionnaires were sent via social networks and mails to achieve the target number of the respondents. The researcher opted to utilize convenience sampling. Hence, the researcher developed a questionnaire matrix. The sample of the participants was 385 people thus such a large sample increases diversity and the preciseness of the conclusion therefore improving the validity of the study. This also helped in achieving a confidential level of 95 percent which has a confidence interval of plus or minus 5 percent. The mathematical formula used in this research to determine the confidence interval is C.I=1.96/(p(100-p))/(n-1).
A reliable study is one that can be carried out for a second time and still yield the same result (Miriam, 2013). The research entails human behavior and attitude which changes with time and also influenced by external variables such as, social and economic occurrences. Therefore, to improve the researchs reliability, the results are only correlated to the 385 participants. There might be different results accrued by another research that uses other participants. However, in a study that entails human behavior, reliability cannot be assured.
This study investigates the travel motivation of young Germans tourists to attend UEFA European championship 2016 in France. The travel motivation is influenced by different variables which the study investigates.
Since data regarding the young German tourists to attend UEFA 2016 in France is rare, only few differences were developed. However, the young German tourists are in various socio-economic statuses. Comparisons would be noted concerning the different socio-economic profiles during the research. Based on the general population, most German tourists attending the UEFA European championship are young people hence the researcher opted to include participants between the age 18 years to 40 years. Thus, travel motivations in this research should target that age niche. Most young German tourists attend the UEFA European championship due to various reasons such as leisure while others due to patriotism hence supporting their national football team. Most of them are ranked quite high in the income level classification. This indicates that the young German tourists attending the UEFA European championship are in the high socio-economic status.
The researcher investigated on 385 young German tourists. The total population of Germans aged between 18 years and 40 years old are 22 million (Statista, 2015). This comprises 27.26 percent of the total population in Germany since the population was 81.2 million by 2015 (Statista, 2015). Most of the participants were aged between 22 years and 28 years which comprised of 46 percent. 18 years to 21 years old were 12 percent whereas 29 years to 40 years old were 42 percent. Males were comprised of 68 percent of the correspondents whereas females were 32 percent. 76 percent of the participants earned income (both employed and self employed) whereas 24 percent were students. 8 percent of the respondents took 1 trip, 34 percent of the respondents took 2 to 3 trips, 32 percent of the respondents took 4 to 5 trips, and 26 percent of the respondents took 5 or more trips. The data concerning the number of trips indicates the general travel behavior of the participants to the UEFA European championship 2016 in France.
Each football match targeted different German tourists. However, it was difficult to classify these young German tourists targeted by different football games based on their age group hence any other categorization should be developed with absolute and rational care. Each football game has to establish its own major target group to provide maximum leisure and support. Additionally, most young German tourists who attended the UEFA European championship 2016 in France and participated in this research had taken less than five trips. However, it was not established how many days or hours they stayed there. Some might have taken a trip but preferred to dwell in France to watch a number of games while others might have travelled just to watch one football match.
31 people travelled for one trip only, 130 people travelled for two to three trips, 124 people travelled for four to five trips and 97 people travelled for five or more trips. However, 76 percent of the participants who travelled to France for the UEFA European championships for more than four times were aged between 29 years and 40 years. Thus, this might indicate that most of them travelled with their younger family members who were aged between 18 years and 28 years. Hence, the older young German tourists who participated in the research seem to have influenced the younger German tourists and thus motivating their attendance to the UEFA European championship. The older German tourists attending the football matches were highly motivated than younger adults. They focused more on the sporting values, the experience of attending a live match and also tourist attractiveness of France. Additionally, most of them attended to support their respective teams. UEFA European championship occurs after every four years, thus it is not a common experience. It is the thrilling and rare experience that motivates the young German tourists to attend.
There are some intrinsic factors that influenced the decision of the young German tourists (Edrak, 2013). These are some the factors with their respective ratings. The need to take a break comprised14 percent, appreciation of the destination-8 percent, need for diversity-7 percent, need for having new experiences-11 percent, to dispose of free time-7 percent, leaving the daily norm of life-13 percent, need for accomplishment-10 percent, need to minimize stress-4 percent, to search for happiness-6 percent, and need to belong-2 percent.
For the younger German tourists, they attended due to some various reasons such as, taking a break, comforting the need for inspiration and independence and also achieving social contacts. These factors influenced the younger tourists to attend the UEFA European championship in France more. Furthermore, France is close to Germany hence the distance of travelling motivates them since the expenses are few.
However, as explained earlier on, the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs explains that there are various motivations that lead a human being to satisfy certain needs (Robert, 2013). They might be physiological, safety and security that includes a place to live in France (Uzman, 2014), social such as love and a sense of belonging, esteem such as the need to be valued and accepted by fellow colleagues, and self actualization (Van, 2011). Some might travel to satisfy their esteem issues and feel that they are accepted by the society more (Vera, 2013). The safety and security issue might motivate a young German tourist to stay for a longer or shorter time (Cohen, 2013). The need to feel relaxed during the short period motivates the young German tourists (Anke, 2012). Factors such as the emotional and psychological status of the young German tourists influenced their travelling too (Uzman, 2014). Therefore, attending the UEFA European championship gave them the opportunity to relieve from the ordinary routine of their daily lives.
There are other extrinsic factors that also influenced the travel motivation of young German tourists (Edrak, 2013). These factors include: to dispose money-9 percent, easy access to public transportation-12 percent, short travelling distance-16 percent, political stability-7 percent, due to the same currency unit-6 percent, attractiveness of the destination-6 percent, easy booking system-9 percent, price of the football matches-8 percent, for those that the trips were planned by others-14 percent, the freedom of travelling-10 percent, and seeing advertisements-14 percent.
The mode of transport used by many young German tourists was trains compared to cars and airplanes. 88 percent of the participants used trains to travel to France. It is considered to be cheaper than other modes of transport use to travel to France. The cost of travelling should be considered seriously since the expenses influence the rate at which people travel (Miriam, 2013). Travelling by trains gave them the chance explore Germany and France in a more comfortable and fun way. Hence the motivation to travel to France improved since the cost of transport is cheap.
51 percent of the participants said that they were more influenced by family and friends than the advertisements and the information in the internet. This indicates that the quality and extent of information in the internet and advertisements in traditional methods such as television broadcasts is low. Most of them tend to trust the information provided by family and friends. This should be a factor that concerned stakeholders should look into. The quality of information should be high for the young German tourists to trust it. The social influence was high in motivating them to travel to the UEFA European championship. As most of them were concerned by the security issue they tend not to trust the media rather follow the information provided by their friends and families. However, the role of the internet could not be ignored by the researcher since most of them booked their trips online since they believed that it is more convenient and easy. The research indicated that internet booking was more suitable for the young German tourists. Thus the model in which a tourist accesses the mode of transport is a factor that motivates them.
Previous literatures have explained travel motivations. A new model that explains the travel behavior of tourists in taking short trips has been developed (Anke, 2012). The model is comprised of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Each variable has a particular degree of influence and a blend of other variables that lead to a certain travel decision (Anke, 2012). The table below will explain the theoretical framework and model of travel motivation of short trips and its trend.
Needs and Perceptions
Adjusting travel behavior- creation of a trend
One or multiple short trips
Generally, image appeal of their destination, which is a pull factor, the personality of the tourists and other external factors influenced their travelling choices to visit a destination (Cohen, 2013). Personal needs of an individual are not adequate enough to develop travel motivation. Understanding peoples personal needs and values are beneficial for destination promoters and planners when developing marketing strategies and offering new products. The extent to which these concur with favorable consumers needs, will affect young German tourists motivation to travel to a certain destination and participating in the success of the destination.
Investigating the travel motivatio...
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