1. Research question
How can one determine and control of Type 2 Diabetes in a child?
The population interest is among children aged between 5-15 years old.
Type 2 diabetes is an ailment that is commonly recurring on old people; hence it is uncommon to witness it on young people. Hence, it will be important to investigate why young people are attacked by this ailment. According to the CDC reports, more than 208000 children have this disease. Also, it is believed that the number is likely to increase if proper interventions are not put in place. There are many causes of type 2 diabetes according to the reports. Epidemiology will play a role in monitoring, investigating and evaluation of the factors that make Type 2 diabetes becoming common in children. The objectives of the investigation are as follows,
Monitoring, identifying and solving the problem
Determining the health problem as well as hazard within the community
Informing, empowering and educating the community about the disease
Mobilizing the community partnership that surrounds the actions that identify the various health related problems
Enforcing laws and regulations and protective health service
Creating an assurance competent for the personal health care workforce
Assuring the competent public, personal care, and workforce
1.2 Interpretations of Research Questions
Type 2 diabetes is experienced when the cell in a child's body does not respond to the insulin and high amount of glucose end to build up in the bloodstream (Silink, 2013). Such types of reaction are called insulin resistance, and it is considered very harmful to that child. Eventually, the level of sugar in the body gets too high for it to handle. I can lead to other conditions in the future such as heart attack, blindness, and kidney failure. It is important to explore the problems that affect children with type 2 diabetes are at risk of severe hypoglycemia as compared to children suffering type 1 diabetes. The blood glucose level is almost at 70mg/dl. At this level, the identified symptoms vary for the blood glucose level for the individual feels the symptoms.
2.1 Exposure and Outcome of Population of Interest
Currently in the United States, children of the ages 1-5 are exposed to undernutrition based on the types of food that they feed. Organic foods are a rare source of food, and some parents are turning to synthetic fast foods, Nun milk as the primary source food. These foods are said to cause smilingly overweight problems. Berquist (2015, p. 82) indicate overweight is one of the strongest contributors to diabetes type 2 in children. The single biggest cause type of diabetes 2 in children is overweight. Our focus on the research will be children be the age of the 1-5 years as they are past infancy and not yet senior children. Ehtisham and Barrett (2004) notes the doctors have explained that change of lifestyle among such children is the reason of them becoming overweight. Some children do not get time even to exercise as they are busy playing for indoors games (Hayman, 2012). According to Levitt Katz et al. (2005), children suffering type 2 diabetes do not have easy to note outcomes. The primary reason is that these children do not have direct symptoms that can easily be detected because their immune is much better (Levitt Katz et al., 2005). Technology has been blamed in such areas as more children prefer playing various computer games instead of spending some of their time to exercise and reduce the number of metabolic acids in their body. Also, the o types of food that children take in the modern world have also impacted them negatively. As per the reports, millions of children in the country are using junk foods on a daily basis. In some cases, children may inherit such condition of being overweight from their parents. 2.2 Exposure and outcome for studying epidemiologic measures
The epidemiologic measure to be used in this research is the measure of occurrence. The measure determines the exposure and the outcome of diabetes type 2 which includes the lack of insulin in the body to control sugar (Cianni et al., 2010). Measuring the amount of insulin in the body is very important for a child since it opens up the cells and allows glucose to enter the bloodstream (Goldstein, 2008). If the glucose is not able to get into the blood stream, the child ends up becoming weak, and it can lead to other diseases since his/her immune system would also be weak (Berquist, 2015). The level of sugar ion the body must be able to remain constant, and if it goes higher than expected, it may cause major problems.
2.3 Exposure rates of exposure of interest to indicate
Findings from CITE, indicate that there are higher rates of exposure from children whose bloodline is prone to diabetes. There is a growing health burden given based on the findings from Vivian, Carrel, and Becker (2011) which estimate close to 45% of the children who have diabetes type 2 tend to inherit it from their parents. In fact, it is advisable that if any parent has any diabetes, it is proper for him/her to take their children for proper assessment. Once the disease it discovered at its early ages, it could be treated (Silink, 2013). However, once it progresses to another stage, the person would be required to inject himself every day a certain dose of insulin to maintain the sugar level in the body. Besides, research from Vivian, Carrel, and Becker (2011) has proved that people from specific ethnic backgrounds, for instance, America, Asian, Latino, and African-American are more likely to develop diabetes type 2 compared to others. According to the primary study conducted in the research, it is clear that children from this racial background have a higher rate to feature diabetes primarily because of the structure of their DNA. Another preference of the disease is common in children who are their puberty stage. Such issues are associated with the fact that the normal rise in hormone levels can cause insulin resistance during the stages of the child's development.
Figure 1: Showing the distribution in Race
2.4 Impact on Public Burden
A high rate of the 45% will have a higher impact on the public given that these children will have to undergo prolonged medication, complicates their feeding patterns as well double up the risk of another disease. Reports by CITE, indicate that children who develop diabetes types 2 tend to urinate more frequently. This is because their kidney response to high level of glucose in their body by removing the extra glucose as urine. Also, the child is likely to drink a lot of liquid since he/she is likely to feel thirsty almost all the time. Such children need to replace the amount of liquid they have lost in their body through urinating. Feeling tired all the time is another outcome of diabetes type 2.
2.5 Outcome of interest to indicate the public health impact or burden
There is a 45 percent rate of the outcome of interests to educate the public of health on the health impact of type 2 diabetes on children. In most cases, age, genetic background, and choice of lifestyle are major factors that motivate the development of diabetes Type 2. Another reason for selecting case-control study design is the aspect that it saves both time and money. In most cases, the selected group would be interviewed in one place to determine all the risk factors, outcomes, and exposure to disease. As such, it would save people the time of traveling to all the regions and trying to interview people (Leslie, 2012). Also, this type of case study is likely to give detailed information since it relates to interviewing people directly. In that light, direct feedback is enhanced. Also, it is important to note that case- control study tends to cover a wider region compared to others. This is because of the aspect that it begins with the outcomes and not the exposure. In that sense, people conducting the case study would be aware of the children who need to be interviewed.
3. Analytic Epidemiology Present other known risk factors
The research According to Gitt et al. (2012) determined other known risk factors that contributed to type 2 diabetes. The research proved that beta blockers were responsible for increasing the First-line Agent in Children Requiring Antihypertensive medication. Beta blockers are a major class of blood pressure lowering drugs that cause and worsen the probability of controlling diabetes. The research investigated whether there was an optimal agent that was responsive in using hypertensive children. There was a selection of an optimal first-line agent that provided a general bold analysis on the information collected. Further research indicated that there was an attempt to enhance the appropriate adherence to the use of beta blockers. The research proved that Omega 3 fatty acids found in fish and beta blockers had a higher likely to increase the possibility of diabetes.
4. Case-control study
The study by Rotteveel et al., (2007) main objective was to investigate the relationship between obesity in childhood and how the medical condition leads to the type 2-diabetes. Pediatricians examined children with type diabetes.
4.1 Methods:The Dutch Pediatric Surveillance Unit has a nationwide pediatric register that was used to explore the new cases diabetes mellitus. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were collected in a survey type using a different questionnaire. Another questionnaire was supplied to the pediatrician group who were involved in the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in relation to the combination of obesity and overweight. There was 95% female, 14% were of Turkish and 18 % for the Moroccan origin.
4.2 Results:The pediatrician reported a totality of 1142 cases of diabetes. The first results indicated that 1.5% of the attendants registered type 2 diabetes. As noted, type 2 diabetes was registered to the ADA, for the information of the C-peptides and antibodies that were missing. It was proved that the remaining patient was more likely to have type 2 diabetes. Initially, 88.9% of patient registered type 1 diabetes while 1.5 % registered type 2 diabetes. However, after enrolling the first questionnaire, 7 of 14 patients registered type 2 diabetes. The remaining 7 patients did not provide any data. The data presented indicated that the diagnosis was inconclusive as well the pediatrician investigated type 1 diabetes associated the problem with the overweight and obese related conditions. Another 870 patients registered a type 1...
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