Policies have made a significant contribution to health in Europe over the past years. Some of the areas that have been affected positively by health policies include early detection of hypertension, road safety, and cancer (Mackenbach, et al., 2013, p. 346). They are the factors that have led to an improvement of population's health in the country including policy formulation. According to WHO (2017), health policy can be defined as decision and plans that are put in place to achieve specific health care goals within the society, or territory. It adds that a good health policy can be of great help to the community. It can be a document that helps in setting short term and having goals in the sector of healthcare. It is important because it gives the priorities and role of different groups and departments in the country as well as informing and building consensus with the people.
DiNitto & David H. Johnson., (2015) defines health policy as a vehicle that allows for exploration and discussion of the health policies. He says that it has goals of enhancing communication between the system researchers, decision makers and professionals in the sector who are concerned with developing health to (DiNitto & David H. Johnson., 2015, p. 41). Based on many definitions of policy, it can fundamentally be defined as a collection of decisions that relate improvement of the previous policies. Walt (1994), viewed policy, as something that government will do, or what they will be doing, or what they decide to do. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the white paper, which is a current national policy, and to consider its impact on the health of patients with diabetes, as well as explaining its relationship to nursing care. Besides, the paper will address the political ideology on which the policy is framed, and the relative impacts to the selected group, both the benefits and the consequences.
Public health white paper is a policy that outlines the transformation of the public health service provision in the England. According to the UKs Faculty of Public health (2010), it is governments vision concerning how it will respond to significant public health challenges of the country, including diabetes through redefined service provision. It is a policy that aims at putting the health at the heart of service delivery. The formation of the public policies, which are meant to address public issues such as health, and they are grounded deeply on ideologies. The white paper is a product of the coalition government, which means the political agreement between the liberal democratic and conservatives political viewpoints, in other words, neoliberals.
The white paper is linked to neoliberalism political ideology because of its features, which is also close to classical liberalism. The neoliberalism is based on the belief that there should limited control by the government. As well, the government should also be concerned with maintaining national security and order. Thus, people should consent to be governed. It is a political ideology that emphasizes the importance of the free market, upholding the rights of the individuals, and minimal control of the government (Holloway & PimlottWilson., 2010). Some authors argue that neoliberalism is an extension of the former consecutive leaders rule. The concept of neoliberalism became widespread in the past 20 years or so. It is widespread in many political and academic debates (Rubinstein & Medeiros, 2014, p. 10). According to Dumenil and Levy (20110, it is an ideology which is shaping the world today, and more dominant. Because of the dominance of ideology, we can be said to be living in the age of neoliberalism (p. 5). Neoliberalism is the first leading theory that proposes that human can be more productive when their political entrepreneurial freedoms and skills are liberated (Williams, et al., 2012, p. 1480). Therefore, it is closely linked with the conservative Thatcherism. There is no discrepancy between the two philosophies as they all share same sentiments of individuality. It believes in making social agendas such as reduction of the government control of the business, and privatization of public firms, as well as the promotion of the government leadership, with minimal state control (Springer, 2012, p. 135). There are various impacts associated with the actions of neoliberalism. For instance, when the government corporations and public bodies are privatized, it causes adverse physical and mental stress as result of lack of jobs and insecurity among other consequences (Holborow, 2015, p. 9). Various features of the white paper make closely linked to the neoliberalism.
The main characteristic of the Policy is a representation of a shift towards the greater change in health, changing the focus of the health care from measuring services by quality, rather than concentrating on activities and process targets (Gulliford & Morgan, 2013). It will reduce the political control in the health care, and the private and individual hospital specialists will play a fundamental role in helping to come in agreement with the patients wishes (Dyson, 2011, p. 1283). As result of the policy, the GPs will be able to refer the patients to individual private hospitals in line with the patients wish, giving the patients more control, which is a feature of the neoliberal ideology. The policy will be critical to the health department of the UK because it will make the processes easy. It will place measures that are genuinely and useful to both the patients and the clinicians, which will be a significant achievement that should not be underestimated. It requires the commissioning groups to work together with the specialists to develop an integrated care pathways. They will ensure that there is a minimal shift in clinical priorities which is meant to make sure that the expectations are not overshadowed by the unintended consequences (Robinson & Parnell, 2011, p. 522). It outlines the roles of the all the health professionals as aimed at addressing the major determinants of the health as well as instituting positive behavior change in the system. However HM Government (Nov 2010) says that the policy has good objectives, but their achievement will require commitments as well as ensuring that the policy is guided by precise, factual, evidence-based and practical systems. It is the only way to which the policy is going to yield a lot to the country. The outcomes of the white paper will have possible benefits and consequences to the patient living with diabetes in the UK.
The estimated number of the people in England with diabetes is increasing yearly. The diabetic prevalence model released by the Public Health England (PHE), shows that while the total number of the people having both types of diabetes in the country is 3.8 million, 90% have the type 2 diabetes (Public Health England, 2016, p. 3). The number has continued to rise every year, although they this particular type can controllable by improving the lifestyles, and providing additional benefits to for health and positive well-being. The likelihood of developing diabetes is associated with overweight which is prevalent in the country because of lack of actual policy (Shivashankar & Mani, 2011, p. 23). However, family history is other contributing factors but the prevalence can be controlled by improved living standards. Diabetes is believed to be increasing the burden of the health. There is need to draw urgent action to lessen the burden of the illness due to the impact on the individuals. Besides, the model shows that one out every four people with diabetes condition are is aware of their status. The population is estimated to be 940,000 (Kostev & Rathmann, 2013, p. 5). The disease has many negative impacts and complications to the individuals who have it. Some of the impacts include foot amputation, kidney disease, and cardiovascular problems such as heart attack and stroke. The complications of the disease vary with age. 9% of the people of 45-54 years have diabetes, and over for people with 73 years it is believed to be 23.8% (Public Health England, 2016). The Disease has, even more, complications for the elder people. It is even worse for the people who have other complications such as cardiovascular diseases.
There is a need for immediate action because based on the current population trends, it is projected that by 2035, people with diabetes will rise to 4.9 million, which will be very costly for the government. Currently, diabetes costs the government NHS approximately 8.8 billion, which is a high burden to the government (Desai, 2012). If the necessary actions such as the development of effective policies are not put in place, the cost of diabetes will rise unsustainable level. Besides the white paper policy, other smaller programmes have also been launched to reduce the number. However, the launch of the white paper policy was relevant to the diabetes patients.
The white paper represented a new era for the public health because the policy aims at giving the public more priority as well as dedicating more resources. The primary goal of the policy is the transforming the public health to achieve results that are innovative, unleashing and to liberate health professional leadership. Whilst it it ideology believes in freeing the individuals, the health policy will as well seek to free the health professionals, and as a result, there will be transformation. It will also attempt to subject the government, parliament, and communities to the subject of improving the health care. The other objective of the policy that I relevant to the control of diabetes is that the policy will have the Department of health publish the documents that will aim at having a new approach the public health (Puhl & Heuer, 2010). Some of issues that the policy will seek to address the policy will include direction on the mental health, obesity, sexual health, emergency preparedness, and pandemic flu preparedness among others (Parliamentatry Business, 2010, p. 45). Diabetes causing factors will be addressed, and by the strategies laid, there will be a positive response for the diabetes patients. The policy is meant to be applied in England but will be incorporated in the devolved administration for effective implementation. The policy will be a great opportunity for the patients with diabetes.
The policy is meant to result in formidable achievements, such as clean water and air, immunization for the prevention of various killer diseases, and enhanced nutrition. The common type of diabetes in the UK is type 2, which can be reduced by managing life activities, such as avoiding overweight and improved nutrition (www.diabetes.org.uk, 2017). The improved health will not target only the well-endowed people. The disease is common to the group of the people who are socio-economically disadvantaged. The policy will aim at reaching the residents in the poorest areas, where lack of the opportunities is resulting in earlier deaths (Marmot & Bell., 2012, p. 6). According to the statistics, people living in the poor areas die earlier that the rest of the population by average seven years (Leslie, 2012, p. 16). It is also estimated that the people from the same disadvantaged regions spend average of 17 years with sickness (Leslie, 2012, p. 18). The same individuals will also be affected by other problems like harm from alcohol, distress, and smoking, and adverse behavioral problems. The full story of the health is found in the document of Our Health and Wellbeing Today, which was published the same time with the policy to accompany in providing more information about England.
The Our Health and Wellbeing Today will give more details about the policy. It will seek to improve ma...
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