The four-domain architecture can help an organization to define, design, and create a set of tools and methods to support its framework. The structure encompasses the process domain, information/knowledge domain, infrastructure domain and organization domain (Iyer & Gottlieb, 2004). The process domain includes the processes, procedures, business tools, the task that encrypt business rules, and dependencies needed to support the various functions within a business. The process domain in an organization includes all the applications used in the management control, operations and strategic planning levels. It is just grouping together systems that gear towards the same purpose. The process domains in an organization can take the form of the formal and informal communication channels or information strategies and filters.
Information/knowledge domain include the business rules and business data and information of all types, their usage, interrelationships and demographics, and their definitions, ownership, distribution, and composition. Additionally, this domain includes the system data, meta-data, and operational data. The use of information technology to share information across the organization can help improve efficiency and enhance performance. According to Iyer and Gottlieb (2004), infrastructure domain, on the other hand, include hardware and facilities, system software, data storage resources, human interfaces, networks and communications, and other underlying technologies that support the tasks and interfaces of the other domains. Accordingly, this helps to ease communication in the organization including communication between the management, subordinates, and the employees. Finally, the group domain includes business people and their roles and responsibilities, organization structures and boundaries and their interrelationships to alliances, partnerships, customers, and other stakeholders in the organization.
According to Taylor (2002), there are three hardware structures under the context of networking and data sharing in a group. They include centralized, decentralized, and federal deployment models. In a centralized model, the IT department places all processors in one location, except for microprocessors and remote workstations, and connects them to a standard network. However, in a decentralized model, there is a deployment of different processors in different locations. Additionally, they do not share a common network. Unlike the decentralized model, the federal deployment model places different processors, all linked in a conventional network, in various locations.
Various factors guide on which deployment model to use in an organization. According to Taylor (2002), the centralized deployment models do not allow for replications since access to applications is through a centralized repository allowing access of information to a limited number of people. On the other hand, the decentralized model allows for replication, and this can be a threat to the security of the repositories. However, the decentralized model has the advantage of working better where there is no internet connection, or the connections are unreliable. Therefore, when choosing a model, it is important to consider the companys needs first to ensure it selects the one that meets the needs of the organization properly since each of them has its pros and cons. In fact, both systems provide a same set of features only that their execution differs.
Implementation of General Motors mission
General Motors seeks to deliver high-quality goods and services to its customers while its employees and business partners will share in its success and that its stockholders will receive a superior return on their investments. Therefore, integrating the centralized and federal deployment models will ensure that the organization will incorporate all the four domain architectures all essential in the attainment of a competitive edge in the industry.
Iyer, B., & Gottlieb, R. (2004). The Four-Domain Architecture: An approach to support enterprise architecture design. IBM Systems Journal, 43(3), 587-597.
Taylor, D. S. (2002). The Governance and Structure of The Information Technology Organization in The Global Economy.
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