Different View of Theory in Philosophy

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Philosophy is the study of the fundamental knowledge of existence and reality. Many philosophers such as Karl Max, Hegel, and Arthur Schopenhauer among others took a central interest in the discipline of philosophy. Each one of them had their assumptions and principles that helped them look at the existence and life of human beings in their environment. For example, Hegel used the principle of the phenomenology of the spirit. It looks at disciplines such as master-slave dialectic, and its overcoming, alienation of people from freedom, the spirit contemplating itself and evolving by way of knowing its place in the world, the human community evolving together to recognize fundamental freedom and traces the history of self-consciousness as developing through human periods. He believes that the mind is the ultimate master and content of knowledge and not the physical as many would want to argue. He looks at politics regarding family and society and believes that the family has a duty to the society and the society also has a duty to the family.

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Karl Max is well known for his belief in, and development of, the socialism/communism principle. He was highly influenced by the philosophies of Hegel. He believed that there were five periods in history, and these were primitive communal, slavery, feudal, capitalist and socialist/Communist, which he saw as the future of the existence of man. He further believed that human societies are categorized into two classes namely proletariat which constitute slaves or workers and Bourgeoisie who are the owners of the slaves and land. Here he states that the master always overworks the slave, and enjoys the slaves' hard work. Similarly, the conditions of the slaves will increasingly get worse as they will continue being poor. However, the situation of the owner will continue to be better since the master will always be rich. In that sense, the poor will keep being poor and many in number while the rich will keep getting rich and fewer in number. The struggle between the classes will cause the workers to be paid less, and the owner will enjoy the hard work of the worker.

Arthur Schopenhauer relied on the principle of sufficient reason which looked at physical objects, abstract concepts, mathematical objects and the self. He aimed to find out what one can know and the nature of things. He concluded his principle by stating that human life is governed by physical, mathematical, logical and moral necessity. He stated that everything in the world is constructed and interpreted by the mind, which leads to perception as the basis of knowledge. He also argued that the will represents the possession of knowledge and is not restricted only to men but other animate and inanimate objects. He argues that the will subject human to work and more work with the aim of satisfaction. In so doing they end up with less time the self and only gain momentary peace before death.

The most intriguing theory is the theory of communism by Karl Max, because he decided to look at the experiences of human life from the perspective of slavery and ownership. As he concludes, slaves work hard and earn less. On the contrary, the owners work less and enjoy the fruits of the slaves labor. Communism is typical of the current world that people live in. The laborers work hard and are paid less, yet the owners of the firms earn more but work less.

The paper analyzes the theories used by Hegel, Karl Max, and Arthur Schopenhauer. They presented their principles in different views about human beings, their environment, and perception of knowledge. The most intriguing principles were communism and socialism proposed by Karl Mark. It looks at the actual happenings of the lives of a human being by talking about important issues such as slavery, ownership and the division of societies based on classes. It reflects the way old and modern people stratified each other and the overwhelming differences between the rich and the poor.

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