1.1 Historical Overview
Most scientists describe 20th Century as cancer century. This is because about one hundred types of cancer were discovered in the 20th century (American Cacer Society, 2014), and many medical efforts were to fight the kind of cancer globally. During this period, cancer was seen as a disease that is fatal leading to the development of medical therapy over the years making different types of cancers curable (Brechon, 2012). After years of having problems with treating various types of cancers, doctors have become knowledgeable about the methods and techniques that can be used to diagnose and determine the cause of the disease and realize the manner in which they can be treated; even the preventive measure. However, breast cancer is still a concern in the field of medicine because it exists in different forms and majorly strike many women across the globe.
From the dawn of history, many doctors have written about Brest cancer. As it traces back to the 20th century. The occurrence and incidences of Brest cancer are traced back to the Egyptians, the period when the only form of treatment that was considered was on antisepsis or anesthesia (Lakhtakia, 2014). The ancient cancer description was first discovered in Egypt. However, the term cancer was not available and occurred around 1600BC (Brechon, 2012). Edwin Smith came up with a method that was used in treating different type of cancer and ulcers using a fire grill (Brechon, 2012). The word cancer originated from the Greek physician Hippocrates at around 460-370 BC (Lakhtakia, 2014). He is considered the father of medicine because he used the word carcinoma and carcinos to describe ulcer-forming tumors and non-ulcer-forming tumors (Lakhtakia, 2014; American Cacer Society, 2014). The most common type of cancer is Carcinoma. The doctrine of the Greek physician called Caudius Galen dominated the anatomy and physiology of the medical thought to the development of cancer of the breast. During these periods, special diets were the recommendations of cancer treatment, but other forms of treatment that were used include topical applications utilization and exorcism (American Cacer Society, 2014). Andreas Vesalius advised people to use mastectomy and ligatures in cancer treatment during the Renaissance. The recognition that the cancer cells can spread to the axillary nodes was first seen in 1685-1770 by a physician called LeDran (Lakhtakia, 2014). He was the first expert to tie the spread of cancer cells to the lymph nodes with poor prognosis. In 1728-1793, John Hunter, a Scottish surgeon, observed that some forms of cancer are curable by surgery based on the size and effect of the tumor on an individuals health (American Cacer Society, 2014; Lakhtakia, 2014; Brechon, 2012). Surgery was only significant when the cancer cells invade the tissues around the tumor. Surgeons in mid-1800 first detailed the first records of breast cancer (American Cacer Society, 2014). The available statistics show that the individuals with breast cancer were treated using mastectomy had an increased rate of recurrence in ten years, especially when lymph nodes and glands were affected. The most common way of treating breast cancer was through the removal of the breast and the glands surrounding the breast to prevent any development of cancer tumor in future (Lakhtakia, 2014).
In 1894, the use of X-rays in treating cancer was developed by William Roentgen (American Cacer Society, 2014). This shed light to the discovery of many diseases including breast cancer. By 1930, there were improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer (Brechon, 2012; Lakhtakia, 2014). Stafford Warren during these years developed a stereoscopic system that identified tumor development in the body. This period is also characterized by the documentation of the different stages of breast cancer by doctors. By 1950, breast self-examination was discovered (Brechon, 2012). In 1960, the high-resolution therapy system of mammography was developed by Dr. Robert Egan enabling reproducible and simple mammograms having images that have more accurate details (Lakhtakia, 2014). In 1963, mammography was seen to reduce the severity of breast cancer by 30% (American Cacer Society, 2014; Brechon, 2012; Lakhtakia, 2014). Significant developments in mammography equipment, like reduced radiation dosage, computer-aided diagnosis, digital imaging, and enhanced detection of breast cancer.
1.2 Breast Cancer
1.2.1 Definitions of Breast Cancer
Cancer can be defined as a disease that is characterized by controlled growth and the spreading of abnormal cells (Baker, 1992; Antonio et.al, 2003; Grabrick et.al, 2000). Such growth leads to tumors that are invaded by cancer cells. These cells usually move through the blood to infect other tissues and organs of the body. Breast cancer is defined as a cancerous or malignant tumor, which develops from breast cells (Baker, 1992). These cancerous cells usually grow and invade the tissues around the breast and spread to various areas of the body. The American Cancer Society defines the term breast cancer as a malignant tumor developing from cells occurring in the breast (American Cacer Society, 2014). Breast cancer starts in the lobule cells or glands that produce milk or the areas draining milk from the lobules. Sometimes breast cancer usually begins in the stromal tissues like the fibrous and fatty connective tissues occurring in the breast. WHO describe breast cancer as growth and development of cells in the breast that is uncontrolled (Wang & Yu, 2014). To understand breast cancer, it is important to realize the manner in which cancer develop.
1.2.2 Development Breast Cancer
Breast cancer usually results from the abnormal changes and mutations occurring from the in the genes, which are liable for regulating the development and growth of cells. Genes occur in every nucleus of a cell that is the remote control of every cell. Through the growth of cells, the cells in our bodies become replaced by new cells that take over the old cells. These cells have the capacity to divide without order or control, producing more cells that lead to a tumor; thus breast tumor (Ziegler et, al, 1993; Eisenhauer, et, al. 2009). A tumor can be either malignant or benign. Malignant tumors are cancerous and very dangerous. However, benigns are not cancerous and not dangerous an individuals health, and they grow slowly and does not spread and invade the body tissues and organs. If malignant cells are left unchecked, they may move to other parts of the body and affect the body tissues and organs. After a period, malignant cells spread and invade the small organs and lymph nodes occurring under the arm; making the cells have a right pathway of spreading to other body parts (Baker, 1992). There are different stages in which breast cancer spread beyond the original tumor.
Breast cancer majorly results from the abnormality of the genetic material. However, approximately 5-20% of cancers occur because of the abnormality of the genetic material inherited from the father or mother (Antonio et.al, 2003). Instead, 80-95% of breast cancers result from the defects of the genetic material occurring because of the aging process (Antonio et.al, 2003). There are methods that people can use to ensure their body remains healthy, for example, eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, limiting alcohol, not smoking and maintaining a healthy weight (Antonio et al., 2003; Grabrick et al., 2000; Eisenhauer, et al. 2009). Though these have some effects on the risk of developing breast cancer they do not eliminate the risk. Early detection of improving the survival and outcome of breast cancer control remain a cornerstone. Cancer screening is a public health issue and is very cost effective when it targets the people who are at risk in a particular region. The only method that has been seen to be more efficient is called mammography screening (Wang & Yu, 2014). Other screenings like clinical breast examination have become less effective because of the complexity of the cancer cells. Surgical prophylaxis is the primary strategy validated in France and across the world (American Cacer Society, 2014). The surgical prophylaxis as a mutilating management usually needs several procedures and is correlated with residual cancer risk based on method or technique used. Non-surgical methods are therefore awaited for. The current strategies that are used are founded on what is known and with time founded to be about the physiology of Brest cancer.
1.2.3 Current Statistics on Brest Cancer
Breast cancer is main cancer affecting women in both the developing and developed world. There is an increase in incidences of breast cancer in developing nations because of adoption of western lifestyles, increased urbanization, and increase life expectancy. Statistics from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention show that breast cancer affects approximately 50000 women every year and causes 15,000 deaths every year (American Cacer Society, 2014). In the United States, the lifetime risk for a woman to develop breast cancer is about 1/8, 1/40 in Asia, 1/12 in Europe, and 1/24 in Africa (Grabrick et.al, 2000). World Health Organization describe that breast cancers was liable for 500000 deaths in 2014 alone (Brechon, 2012). In developed nations, breast cancer shows 30% to 40% of the total occurrences of in women and 20% to 30% mortality rate among women (American Cacer Society, 2014). Worldwide, there have been 1, 301,876 incidences of breast cancer and about 465456 deaths were registered in 2014 (Eisenhauer, et, al. 2009). WHO describe that in the US, breast cancer is the commonest cancer and affect the majority of women, especially in Illinois, accounting for 33% of the female cancers. The National Cancer Institute show that around 1 in 12 women in the United States will grow breast cancer at some point in life, accounting for 13% of women. These rates are based on the estimates from 2014 through 2015 (American Cacer Society, 2014). Breast cancer as a chronic disease is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Majorly, breast cancer is among the main deadliest and common diseases worldwide, and it is a devastating disease that affects women in ever increasing numbers. Limited research has been conducted on breast cancer that points to different concerns.
2.1 Anatomy of Breast Cancer
Women have a higher number of breast tissues than men despite the fact that both men and women have breasts. The female breast extends over a larger area, and each one lies on the pectoral muscle which is a muscle located in the chest. The extensive coverage of the breast is the area just below the collarbone (clavicle), across the breastbone (sternum) and to the armpit (axilla) (Stoppler & Cunha, 2015).
An ectodermal milk streak which is a mammary ridge usually grows on either side of the anatomy from the axilla to the groin; this development usually takes place when the human fetus is five (5) weeks old (Donegan et al. 2002). In humans, the breasts often retrogress to the exact location of the adult nipple whereas a...
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