Multicellular organism reproduces by the fundamental concept of cell division. In essence, the process involves the division of preexisting cells; these cells divide through the two major processes that are, mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis occurs through the equal splitting of chromosomes of the mother cell which end up with two daughter cells. The mitosis process occurs in four different stages that sequentially follow-through: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase. On the other hand, Meiosis can be defined as the process in which one diploid cell divide in a distinct way to generate haploid cells, this is common in eukaryotic cells (Deena T Kochunni, 2017). Meiosis is distinctively composed of two cell divisions which lead to the development of an equal number of chromosomes; the two divisions are namely Meiosis I and Meiosis II.
Major Similarities of Mitosis and Meiosis
Cell Division Stages
Both Mitosis and meiosis take place in a sequence of stages that follow-through from one stage to another. Under Mitosis, prophase, interphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase occur. On the other hand, meiosis occurs in two distinct stages, Meiosis I and Meiosis II (Kochunni, 2017).
DNA replication occurs in both stages of Meiosis and Mitosis; chromatids are developed from a single chromosome. The common goal in both cell division types requires the splitting of the nucleus; this includes the DNA content within. DNA is first duplicated and condensed in a form that allows for proper transportation.
In both processes, chromosomes are pulled apart in opposite directions. Centrosomes provide a road like structure through which protein components are transported from one end to the other. Motor proteins move through the microtubules in a bid to pull apart the sister chromatids each moving in the opposite direction hence allowing the cells to divide (Nguyen, 2016).
Differences in Mitosis and Meiosis
1. Mitosis generally occurs in the somatic cells while on the other hand Meiosis occurs in germ cells of the body.
2. Mitosis occurs in both asexual and sexually reproducing organisms while meiosis occurs only in sexually reproducing organisms.
3. Mitosis cell division occurs only once while Meiosis has two cell divisions.
4. The interphase stage occurs prior to all cell divisions in mitosis while in meiosis, the interphase stage precedes Meiosis I and does not usually occur prior to Meiosis II.
5. DNA replication only once for one cell in Mitosis while in Meiosis DNA replication occurs once for two cell divisions.
6. Cell division occurs only once, and chromosomes divide only once in Mitosis. Meiosis has two cell divisions and once chromosomal division (Kochunni, 2017).
Acronym for Similarities and Differences of Mitosis and Meiosis
Remembering the stages, differences, and similarities of Meiosis and Mitosis is always challenging to students. A simple but yet definitive understanding of the stages of the two processes can be put in an acronym that is simple to comprehend.
M I-Meiosis I
M II- Meiosis II
The concept of IPMAT can be understood easily by students of different academic capacities as it summarizes all the stages of Mitosis. M I and M II capture the two stages of Meiosis. The similarities and differences require an understanding of both processes hence it necessitates reading and conceptualization.
Deena T Kochunni, J. (2017). Major Events in Mitosis. Biologyexams4u.com. Retrieved 20 January 2017, from http://www.biologyexams4u.com/2013/03/major-events-in-mitosis.html#.WIG5I1N9600
Kochunni, J. (2017). Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis (32 Differences). Biologyexams4u.com. Retrieved 20 January 2017, from http://www.biologyexams4u.com/2012/09/difference-between-mitosis-and-meiosis.html#.WIGz_FN9600
Nguyen, D. (2016). Similarities of Mitosis and Meiosis. http://education.seattlepi.com/similarities-mitosis-meiosis-3866.html. Retrieved 20 January 2017, from http://education.seattlepi.com/similarities-mitosis-meiosis-3866.html
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