Research on prostate cancer in the elderly is important because the disease is common and it causes high rates of mortality among the elderly male (Miller et al., 2016). Most researchers agree that prostate cancer relates strongly to age and affect only old men of age 50 years and above. According to the U.S health statistics of 2010, it is clear that 35 % of cancer patients between 2003 and 2007 were male patients of 66 and 74 years. Another 25% of prostate cancer patients consisted of a male above 75% of age. Research of 2010 revealed that prostate cancer cases in the U.S.A is high and keep increasing for male above 50 years. For this reason, elderly male of age 70 years and above is at high risk of contracting prostate cancer. The latest research shows that the prostate is the third cause of death due to cancer among elderly men of 80 years and older male (Miller et al., 2016).
The health professionals fraternity has a desire to know the factors causing cancer for patients. The research on the cause of cancer has been successful and therefore several factors contribute to cancer among the elderly male. The research has shown that age exposes males to cases of cancer. For example, older males above 50 years are at risk of contracting the disease. The ethnic group also determines the susceptibility to the disease. Research shows that old males of African descent are more susceptible to prostate cancer as compared to Asian descent men (Serrell et al., 2017). Familial history determines whether one is at risk of contracting prostate cancer. A study has shown that old male with brothers who developed prostate cancer in their 60s is likely to develop the condition at their old age. In the pursuit of knowledge regarding the treatment and management of prostate cancer patients, the health professionals discovered that diet, obesity, and lack of exercise contribute to the frequent cases of prostate cancer among elderly males. Some of the causes that lead to cancer seem insensible. For example, the old male may not see sense in regular exercise because they believe the activity belongs to the young people. The exercises of calcium in food expose the old male adults to cases of cancer. However, it is difficult for old poor people to know how much calcium exposes them to the risk of cancer. The research regarding the causes of prostate cancer is due to the desire to know how to manage the condition that is affecting the majority of the old male (Ploussard et al., 2017).
Medical research has contributed immensely to the management of prostate cancer patients (Lall, et al., 2014). For example, the latest research that food contains nutrients such as lycopene and selenium. The discovery of the importance of the two nutrients has helped add to the existing knowledge regarding the management and treatment of prostate cancer. Management of patients with prostate cancer is an important step in their treatment. Patient management is an important step because different patients require unique care. For decades, there has been an emphasis that elderly patients should receive treatments as younger people. One of the effects of prostate cancer is cognitive impairment. It is therefore recommendable that doctors conduct an initial evaluation to determine the degree of cognitive impairment (Ploussard et al., 2017).
Little is known about prostate cancer because it affects elderly men that moat societies believe that they have a short time to live. However, the death due to prostate cancer has called for research to discover the correct medication for the disease. Medical research shows that diagnosis and staging are important steps towards the treatment of prostate cancer (Lall, et al., 2014). For instance, choosing the best treatment plan depends largely on the correct diagnosis and right staging. Besides, each treatment option has possible risks and effects.
One of the most commonly used treatments for prostate cancer is surgery. Surgery is a commonly used method where most patients have had surgery on their prostate gland. This type of treatment is possible when the prostate cancer has not spread to neighboring tissues. Radical prostatectomy is done where the doctors remove the affected prostate gland, and all the neighboring tissues to avoid the spread of cancer to the entire part of the body (Heidenreich, et al., 2013).
It is apparent that research has led to advancement in the treatment methods for the disease. For example, the traditional approaches for prostate cancer treatment are less used because they are less effective and pose risks to the lives of the patients. For example, research shows that an open approach has a long-term effect on the general health of the patient. The open approach involves a long skin incision and the removal of the prostate gland and all the neighboring tissues. This approach was common in the past because doctors aimed at removing all the affected tissues to reduce the spread of the disease. The pictures below illustrate the open approach method of cancer treatment (Heidenreich, et al., 2013).
Radiotherapy is another method used in the treatment of cancer when other approaches fail. Radiation is suitable for the treatment of prostate cancer when the disease is still in the prostate gland. Research shows that the rate of cure when is high with the use of radiation and especially when the disease is concentrated in the prostate gland (Gillessen et al.2015). Additionally, the use of radiation is suitable when prostate cancer has spread to the neighboring tissues. The use of radiation has helped to reduce the pains that come with cancer. It is widely known that failure to remove all the tissues that have been affected by cancer causes cancer to reoccur. The advanced stages of most types of cancer call for radiation to control the spread and to reduce the pain associated with the disease. Research also shows that radiotherapy relieves the patients of all the symptoms and prevents the effects of drugs used during the treatment process.
The high frequency of prostate cancer has helped to unveil measures to combat the disease. For example, research has led to the discovery of two types of radiotherapy that promote treatments of the patients. For example, in modern society, there are examples of therapies such as external beam radiation and brachytherapy. External therapy is the most used strategy because it is available in various cancer centers. The radiation helps to cure the cancer cells in the early stages of their development. There is a knowledge gap regarding the treatment of prostate cancer in different parts of the world. Researchers have established that the inability of the doctors to determine the dose for the radiation cases early deaths for the patients. It is a tedious process to determine the angles for beam illumination to ensure effective deaths of the cancer cells (Cooperberg, and Carroll, 2015).
Despite the advancement in technology, developed and developing countries have not been able to attain zero deaths from prostate cancer (Cooperberg, and Carroll, 2015). In African societies, old men in their 80s do not see the sense in the procedural treatments involved in prostate cancer treatment. The majority of the elderly men do not turn up for their diagnosis because they believe death is approaching. The majority of the elderly succumb to prostate cancer without knowing because they think it is a common thing to old people. For this reason, there is still a knowledge gap because most of the old men do not know they are suffering from the disease until they die of the pain.
Cooperberg, M.R. and Carroll, P.R., 2015. Trends in management for patients with localized prostate cancer, 1990-2013. Jama, 314(1), pp.80-82.
Gillessen, S., Omlin, A., Attard, G., de Bono, J.S., Efstathiou, E., Fizazi, K., Halabi, S., Nelson, P.S., Sartor, O., Smith, M.R. and Soule, H.R., 2015. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer: recommendations of the St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2015. Annals of Oncology, 26(8), pp.1589-1604.
Heidenreich, A., Bastian, P.J., Bellmunt, J., Bolla, M., Joniau, S., van der Kwast, T., Mason, M., Matveev, V., Wiegel, T., Zattoni, F. and Mottet, N., 2014. EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. Part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intentupdate 2013. European urology, 65(1), pp.124-137.
Lall, R.K., Syed, D.N., Adhami, V.M., Khan, M.I. and Mukhtar, H., 2015. Dietary polyphenols in prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. International journal of molecular sciences, 16(2), pp.3350-3376.
Miller, K.D., Siegel, R.L., Lin, C.C., Mariotto, A.B., Kramer, J.L., Rowland, J.H., Stein, K.D., Alteri, R. and Jemal, A., 2016. Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2016. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 66(4), pp.271-289.
Ploussard, G., Almeras, C., Briganti, A., Giannarini, G., Hennequin, C., Ost, P., Renard-Penna, R., Salin, A., Lebret, T., Villers, A. and Soulie, M., 2015. Management of node only recurrence after primary local treatment for prostate cancer: a systematic review of the literature. The Journal of Urology, 194(4), pp.983-988.
Serrell, E.C., Pitts, D., Hayn, M., Beaule, L., Hansen, M.H. and Sammon, J.D., 2017, November. Review of the comparative effectiveness of radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, or expectant management of localized prostate cancer in registry data. In Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations. Elsevier.
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